American Journal of Clinical Dermatology

, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp 423–442 | Cite as

HIV-Related Skin Disease in the Era of Antiretroviral Therapy: Recognition and Management

  • Khatiya Chelidze
  • Cristina Thomas
  • Aileen Yenting Chang
  • Esther Ellen FreemanEmail author
Therapy in Practice


Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has revolutionized the treatment and prognosis of people living with HIV (PLHIV). With increased survival and improved overall health, PLHIV are experiencing dermatologic issues both specific to HIV and common to the general population. In this new era of ART, it is crucial for dermatologists to have a strong understanding of the broad range of cutaneous disease and treatment options in this unique population. In this review, we outline the most common skin diseases in PLHIV, including HIV-associated malignancies, inflammatory conditions, and infections, and focus on the role of ART in altering epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of cutaneous conditions.



The authors would like to acknowledge Ms. Julia Foote (Massachusetts General Hospital) for her assistance in editing the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards


Dr. Freeman’s effort on this manuscript was supported by the Dermatology Foundation and NIH K23 AI136579.

Conflict of interest

Khatiya Chelidze has no conflicts to disclose. Cristina Thomas has no conflicts to disclose. Aileen Yenting Chang has no conflicts to disclose. Esther Ellen Freeman has no conflicts to disclose.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khatiya Chelidze
    • 1
  • Cristina Thomas
    • 2
  • Aileen Yenting Chang
    • 3
  • Esther Ellen Freeman
    • 2
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Weill Cornell Medical CollegeMassachusetts General HospitalNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of DermatologyMassachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of DermatologyUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  4. 4.Medical Practice Evaluation Center, Mongan InstituteMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA

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