Advertisement

American Journal of Clinical Dermatology

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 231–242 | Cite as

Adverse Effects of Acne Medications: Recognition and Management

  • Mollie D. Oudenhoven
  • Megan A. Kinney
  • Diana B. McShane
  • Craig N. Burkhart
  • Dean S. MorrellEmail author
Therapy in Practice

Abstract

Acne vulgaris is a very common chronic inflammatory disease of the skin. The clinical features of acne range from non-inflammatory comedones to inflammatory nodules. While often perceived as an adolescent disease, the prevalence remains high into adulthood, and the manifestations can have detrimental psychosocial effects. It is therefore not surprising that many patients are motivated to seek treatment. The existing treatment strategies for acne are complex due to the multifactorial pathogenesis of the disease. Although it is difficult to cure, four categories of medications have proved efficacious in reducing acne lesions: topical agents, systemic antibiotics, systemic retinoids, and hormonal agents. Unfortunately, these medications can cause adverse effects that may limit their use. Typically, these adverse effects are mild and transient and can be remedied by altering the dose or frequency of the offending agent. However, more serious adverse effects can occur that pose a significant health risk to the patient. Understanding how to recognize and manage the adverse effects of common acne therapies is imperative to providing the safest and most appropriate treatment for each patient. This article focuses on the recognition and management of adverse effects associated with current acne medications.

Keywords

Salicylic Acid Acne Minocycline Isotretinoin Benzoyl Peroxide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

No sources of funding were used to prepare this review. None of the authors have conflicts of interest that are directly related to the content of this review.

References

  1. 1.
    Dawson AL, Dellavalle RP. Acne vulgaris. BMJ. 2013;346(7907):30–3.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shalita AR. Acne: clinical presentations. Clin Dermatol. 2004;22(5):385–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Williams HC, Dellavalle RP, Garner S. Acne vulgaris. Lancet. 2012;379(9813):361–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Degitz K, Placzek M, Borelli C, Plewig G. Pathophysiology of acne. JDDG J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2007;5(4):316–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Webster GF. The pathophysiology of acne. Cutis. 2005;76(2 Suppl):4–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Knutsen-Larson S, Dawson AL, Dunnick CA, Dellavalle RP. Acne vulgaris: pathogenesis, treatment, and needs assessment. Dermatol Clin. 2012;30(1):99–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    James WD. Acne. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(14):1463–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bowe WP, Glick JB, Shalita AR. Solodyn and updates on topical and oral therapies for acne. Curr Dermatol Rep. 2012;1(3):97–107.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gollnick H, Schramm M. Topical drug treatment in acne. Dermatology. 1998;196(1):119–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Aa Shalita, Weiss JS, Chalker DK, Ellis CN, Greenspan A, Katz HI, et al. A comparison of the efficacy and safety of adapalene gel 0.1 % and tretinoin gel 0.025 % in the treatment of acne vulgaris: a multicenter trial. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1996;34(3):482–5.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bershad S, Singer GK, Parente JE, Tan M-H, Sherer DW, Persaud AN, et al. Successful treatment of acne vulgaris using a new method: results of a randomized vehicle-controlled trial of short-contact therapy with 0.1 % tazarotene gel. Arch Dermatol. 2002;138(4):481–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Epstein EL, Gold LS. Safety and efficacy of tazarotene foam for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2013;6:123.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shalita AR, Chalker DK, Griffith RF, Herbert AA, Hickman JG, Maloney JM, et al. Tazarotene gel is safe and effective in the treatment of acne vulgaris: a multicenter, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study. Cutis. 1999;63(6):349–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Webster GF, Berson D, Stein LF, Fivenson DP, Tanghetti EA, Ling M. Efficacy and tolerability of once-daily tazarotene 0.1 % gel versus once-daily tretinoin 0.025 % gel in the treatment of facial acne vulgaris: a randomized trial. Cutis. 2001;67(6 Suppl):4–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cunliffe WJ, Poncet M, Loesche C, Verschoore M. A comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of adapalene 0.1 % gel versus tretinoin 0.025 % gel in patients with acne vulgaris: a meta-analysis of five randomized trials. Br J Dermatol. 1998;139(Suppl 52):48–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Feldman S, Careccia RE, Barham KL, Hancox J. Diagnosis and treatment of acne. Am Fam Physician. 2004;69(9):2123–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Akhavan A, Bershad S. Topical acne drugs. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2003;4(7):473–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Loureiro KD, Kao KK, Jones KL, Alvarado S, Chavez C, Dick L, et al. Minor malformations characteristic of the retinoic acid embryopathy and other birth outcomes in children of women exposed to topical tretinoin during early pregnancy. Am J Med Genet Part A. 2005;136(2):117–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Panchaud A, Csajka C, Merlob P, Schaefer C, Berlin M, Santis M, et al. Pregnancy outcome following exposure to topical retinoids: a multicenter prospective study. J Clin Pharmacol. 2012;52(12):1844–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Becker LE, Bergstresser PR, Whiting DA, Clendenning WE, Dobson RL, Jordan WP, et al. Topical clindamycin therapy for acne vulgaris. A cooperative clinical study. Arch Dermatol. 1981;117(8):482–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Draelos ZD, Carter E, Maloney JM, Elewski B, Poulin Y, Lynde C et al. Two randomized studies demonstrate the efficacy and safety of dapsone gel, 5 % for the treatment of acne vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;56(3):439.e1–10.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Goltz RW, Coryell GM, Schnieders JR, Neidert GL. A comparison of Cleocin T 1 percent solution and Cleocin T 1 percent lotion in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Cutis. 1985;36(3):265–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Parker F. A comparison of clindamycin 1 % solution versus clindamycin 1 % gel in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Int J Dermatol. 1987;26(2):121–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Simonart T, Dramaix M. Treatment of acne with topical antibiotics: lessons from clinical studies. Br J Dermatol. 2005;153(2):395–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Milstone EB, McDonald AJ, Scholhamer CF. Pseudomembranous colitis after topical application of clindamycin. Arch Dermatol. 1981;117(3):154–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Parry MF, Rha C-K. Pseudomembranous colitis caused by topical clindamycin phosphate. Arch Dermatol. 1986;122(5):583–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Thomson Healthcare. Physicians’ desk reference: prescription drugs. 63rd ed. Montvale, NJ; 2009.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gollnick H, Cunliffe W, Berson D, Dreno B, Finlay A, Leyden JJ, et al. Management of acne: a report from a Global Alliance to Improve Outcomes in Acne. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;49(1):S1–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Leyden JJ. Bacterial resistance and therapeutic outcome following three months of topical acne therapy with 2 % erythromycin gel versus its vehicle. Acta Derm Venereol. 2002;82:260–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Patel M, Bowe WP, Heughebaert C, Shalita AR. The development of antimicrobial resistance due to the antibiotic treatment of acne vulgaris: a review. J Drugs Dermatol. 2010;9(6):655–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Thiboutot D, Gollnick H, Bettoli V, Dréno B, Kang S, Leyden JJ, et al. New insights into the management of acne: an update from the Global Alliance to Improve Outcomes in Acne group. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;60(5):S1–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bowe WP, Shalita AR, editors. Effective over-the-counter acne treatments. Seminars in cutaneous medicine and surgery: Elsevier; 2008.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Leyden JJ, Berger RS, Dunlap FE, Ellis CN, Connolly MA, Levy SF. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of a combination topical gel formulation of benzoyl peroxide and clindamycin with benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin and vehicle gel in the treatments of acne vulgaris. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2001;2(1):33–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mills OH, Kligman AM, Pochi P, Comite H. Comparing 2.5 %, 5 %, and 10 % benzoyl peroxide on inflammatory acne vulgaris. Int J Dermatol. 1986;25(10):664–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gehrig KA, Warshaw EM. Allergic contact dermatitis to topical antibiotics: epidemiology, responsible allergens, and management. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;58(1):1–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Morelli R, Lanzarini M, Vincenzi C, Reggiani M. Contact dermatitis due to benzoyl peroxide. Contact Dermat. 1989;20(3):238–9.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Raschke R, Arnold-Capell PA, Richeson R, Curry SC. Refractory hypoglycemia secondary to topical salicylate intoxication. Arch Intern Med. 1991;151(3):591–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Schwarb FP, Gabard B, Rufli T, Surber C. Percutaneous absorption of salicylic acid in man after topical administration of three different formulations. Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland). 1999;198(1):44–51 (18063 [pii]).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Brubacher JR, Hoffman RS. Salicylism from topical salicylates: review of the literature. Clin Toxicol. 1996;34(4):431–6.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pertoldi F, D’Orlando L, Mercante WP. Acute salicylate intoxication after trancutaneous absorption. Minerva Anestesiol. 1999;65(7–8):571–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kornhauser A, Coelho SG, Hearing VJ. Applications of hydroxy acids: classification, mechanisms, and photoactivity. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2010;3:135–42. doi: 10.2147/ccid.s9042.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Baumann LS, Oresajo C, Yatskayer M, Dahl A, Figueras K. Comparison of clindamycin 1 % and benzoyl peroxide 5 % gel to a novel composition containing salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid, HEPES, glycolic acid, citric acid, and dioic acid in the treatment of acne vulgaris. J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12(3):266–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Picardo M, Ottaviani M. Azelaic acid. Pathogenesis and treatment of acne and rosacea. Berlin: Springer; 2014. p. 435–40.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Thiboutot D. New treatments and therapeutic strategies for acne. Arch Fam Med. 2000;9(2):179–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fitton A, Goa KL. Azelaic acid. Drugs. 1991;41(5):780–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kircik LH. Harnessing the anti-inflammatory effects of topical dapsone for management of acne. J Drugs Dermatol JDD. 2010;9(6):667–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Piette WW, Taylor S, Pariser D, Jarratt M, Sheth P, Wilson D. Hematologic safety of dapsone gel, 5 %, for topical treatment of acne vulgaris. Arch Dermatol. 2008;144(12):1564–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Fleischer AB Jr, Shalita A, Eichenfield LF, Abramovits W, Lucky A, Garrett S, et al. Dapsone gel 5 % in combination with adapalene gel 0.1 %, benzoyl peroxide gel 4 % or moisturizer for the treatment of acne vulgaris: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind study. J Drugs Dermatol JDD. 2010;9(1):33–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lucky AW, Maloney JM, Roberts J, Taylor S, Jones T, Ling M, et al. Dapsone gel 5 % for the treatment of acne vulgaris: safety and efficacy of long-term (1 year) treatment. J Drugs Dermatol JDD. 2007;6(10):981–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Webster GF. Is topical dapsone safe in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient and sulfonamide-allergic patients? J Drugs Dermatol JDD. 2010;9(5):532–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Zakopoulou N, Kontochristopoulos G. Superficial chemical peels. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2006;5(3):246–53. doi: 10.1111/j.1473-2165.2006.00254.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Garg VK, Sinha S, Sarkar R. Glycolic acid peels versus salicylic-mandelic acid peels in active acne vulgaris and post-acne scarring and hyperpigmentation: a comparative study. Dermatol Surg Off Publ Am Soc Dermatol Surg [et al]. 2009;35(1):59–65. doi: 10.1111/j.1524-4725.2008.34383.x.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Peric S, Bubanj M, Bubanj S, Jancic S. Side effects assessment in glicolyc acid peelings in patients with acne type I. Bosnian J Basic Med Sci Udruzenje basicnih mediciniskih znanosti Assoc Basic Med Sci. 2011;11(1):52–7.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Madan RK, Levitt J. A review of toxicity from topical salicylic acid preparations. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014;70(4):788–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Dreno B, Fischer TC, Perosino E, Poli F, Viera MS, Rendon MI, et al. Expert opinion: efficacy of superficial chemical peels in active acne management—what can we learn from the literature today? Evidence-based recommendations. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol JEADV. 2011;25(6):695–704. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-3083.2010.03852.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Meynadier J, Alirezai M. Systemic antibiotics for acne. Dermatology. 1998;196(1):135–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lebrun-Vignes B, Kreft-Jais C, Castot A, Chosidow O. Comparative analysis of adverse drug reactions to tetracyclines: results of a French national survey and review of the literature. Br J Dermatol. 2012;166(6):1333–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Smith K, Leyden JJ. Safety of doxycycline and minocycline: a systematic review. Clin Ther. 2005;27(9):1329–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Katsambas A, Papakonstantinou A. Acne: systemic treatment. Clin Dermatol. 2004;22(5):412–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Khan Durani B, Jappe U. Drug-induced Sweet’s syndrome in acne caused by different tetracyclines: case report and review of the literature. Br J Dermatol. 2002;147(3):558–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lee AG. Pseudotumor cerebri after treatment with tetracycline and isotretinoin for acne. Cutis. 1995;55(3):165–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Brown SK, Shalita AR. Acne vulgaris. Lancet. 1998;351(9119):1871–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Shapiro LE, Knowles SR, Shear NH. Comparative safety of tetracycline, minocycline, and doxycycline. Arch Dermatol. 1997;133(10):1224–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Tan H-H. Antibacterial therapy for acne. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2003;4(5):307–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Alikhan A, Henderson GP, Becker L, Sciallis GF. Acne treatment and inflammatory bowel disease: what is the evidence? 1097–6787 (Electronic).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kronman MP, Zaoutis TE, Haynes K, Feng R, Coffin SE. Antibiotic exposure and IBD development among children: a population-based cohort study. Pediatrics. 2012;130(4):e794–803.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Margolis DJ, Fanelli M, Hoffstad O, Lewis JD. Potential association between the oral tetracycline class of antimicrobials used to treat acne and inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105(12):2610–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Layton AM, Cunliffe WJ. Phototoxic eruptions due to doxycycline—a dose-related phenomenon. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1993;18(5):425–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Garner SE, Eady EA, Popescu C, Newton J, Li WA. Minocycline for acne vulgaris: efficacy and safety. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;1:CD002086.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Fanning WL, Gump DW, Sofferman RA. Side effects of minocycline: a double-blind study. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1977;11(4):712–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Goulden V, Glass D, Cunliffe WJ. Safety of long-term high-dose minocycline in the treatment of acne. Br J Dermatol. 1996;134(4):693–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Williams D, Laughlin L, Lee Y-H. Minocycline: possible vestibular side-effects. Lancet. 1974;304(7883):744–6.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Donnet A, Dufour H, Graziani N, Grisoli F. Minocycline and benign intracranial hypertension. Biomed Pharmacother. 1992;46(4):171–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lessell S. Pediatric pseudotumor cerebri (idiopathic intracranial hypertension). Surv Ophthalmol. 1992;37(3):155–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Monaco F, Agnetti V, Mutani R. Benign intracranial hypertension after minocycline therapy. Eur Neurol. 1978;17(1):48–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Eisen D, Hakim MD. Minocycline-induced pigmentation. Drug Saf. 1998;18(6):431–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Mouton RW, Jordaan HF, Schneider JW. A new type of minocycline-induced cutaneous hyperpigmentation. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2004;29(1):8–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Collins P, Cotterill JA. Minocycline-induced pigmentation resolves after treatment with the Q-switched ruby laser. Br J Dermatol. 1996;135(2):317–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Gough A, Chapman S, Wagstaff K, Emery P, Elias E. Minocycline induced autoimmune hepatitis and systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome. BMJ (Clinical research ed). 1996;312(7024):169–72.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Knowles SR, Shapiro L, Shear NH. Serious adverse reactions induced by minocycline: report of 13 patients and review of the literature. Arch Dermatol. 1996;132(8):934–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Wolkenstein P, Revuz J. Drug-induced severe skin reactions. Drug Saf. 1995;13(1):56–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Yung RL, Richardson BC. Drug-induced lupus. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1994;20(1):61–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Elkayam O, Yaron M, Caspi D, editors. Minocycline-induced autoimmune syndromes: an overview. Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism: Elsevier; 1999.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Lawrenson RA, Seaman HE, Sundström A, Williams TJ, Farmer RDT. Liver damage associated with minocycline use in acne. Drug Saf. 2000;23(4):333–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bhambri S, Del Rosso JQ, Desai A. Oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Cutis. 2007;79(6):430–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lawson DH, Paice BJ. Adverse reactions to trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole. Rev Infect Dis. 1982;4(2):429–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Fernandez-Obregon AC. Azithromycin for the treatment of acne. Int J Dermatol. 2000;39(1):45–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kapadia N, Talib A. Acne treated successfully with azithromycin. Int J Dermatol. 2004;43(10):766–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ray WA, Murray KT, Hall K, Arbogast PG, Stein CM. Azithromycin and the risk of cardiovascular death. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(20):1881–90.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Thiboutot D. Acne: hormonal concepts and therapy. Clin Dermatol. 2004;22(5):419–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    George R, Clarke S, Thiboutot D, editors. Hormonal therapy for acne. Seminars in cutaneous medicine and surgery: WB Saunders; 2008.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Harper JC. Antiandrogen therapy for skin and hair disease. Dermatol Clin. 2006;24(2):137–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Harper JC. Should dermatologists prescribe hormonal contraceptives for acne? Dermatol Ther. 2009;22(5):452–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Katsambas AD, Dessinioti C. Hormonal therapy for acne: why not as first line therapy? Facts and controversies. Clin Dermatol. 2010;28(1):17–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Haider A, Shaw JC. Treatment of acne vulgaris. JAMA. 2004;292(6):726–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Lidegaard Ø, Nielsen LH, Skovlund CW, Skjeldestad FE, Løkkegaard E. Risk of venous thromboembolism from use of oral contraceptives containing different progestogens and oestrogen doses: Danish cohort study, 2001–2009. BMJ. 2011;343:d6423.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Shaw JC, White LE. Long-term safety of spironolactone in acne: results of an 8-year followup study. JCMS. 2002;6(6):541–5.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Yemisci A, Gorgulu A, Piskin S. Effects and side-effects of spironolactone therapy in women with acne. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2005;19(2):163–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Shaw JC. Low-dose adjunctive spironolactone in the treatment of acne in women: a retrospective analysis of 85 consecutively treated patients. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;43(3):498–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Van Wayjen RGA, Van den Ende A. Experience in the long-term treatment of patients with hirsutism and/or acne with cyproterone acetate-containing preparations: efficacy, metabolic and endocrine effects. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 1995;103(04):241–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Brahm J, Brahm M, Segovia R, Latorre R, Zapata R, Poniachik J, et al. Acute and fulminant hepatitis induced by flutamide: case series report and review of the literature. Ann Hepatol. 2011;10(1):93–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Strauss JS, Krowchuk DP, Leyden JJ, Lucky AW, Shalita AR, Siegfried EC, et al. Guidelines of care for acne vulgaris management. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;56(4):651–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Wysowski DK, Freiman JP, Tourtelot JB, Horton ML. Fatal and nonfatal hepatotoxicity associated with flutamide. Ann Intern Med. 1993;118(11):860–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ward A, Brogden RN, Heel RC, Speight TM, Avery GS. Isotretinoin. Drugs. 1984;28(1):6–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    McLane J. Analysis of common side effects of isotretinoin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;45(5):S188–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Strauss JS, Gottlieb AB, Jones T, Koo JY, Leyden JJ, Lucky A, et al. Concomitant administration of vitamin E does not change the side effects of isotretinoin as used in acne vulgaris: a randomized trial. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;43(5 Pt 1):777–84. doi: 10.1067/mjd.2000.110391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kus S, Gun D, Demircay Z, Sur H. Vitamin E does not reduce the side-effects of isotretinoin in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Int J Dermatol. 2005;44(3):248–51. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2004.02072.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Hull PR, Demkiw-Bartel C. Isotretinoin use in acne: prospective evaluation of adverse events. J Cutan Med Surg. 2000;4(3):66–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kmiec ML, Pajor A, Broniarczyk-Dyla G. Evaluation of biophysical skin parameters and assessment of hair growth in patients with acne treated with isotretinoin. Postepy Dermatol Alergol. 2013;30(6):343–9. doi: 10.5114/pdia.2013.39432.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Tan B, Lear J, Smith A. Acne fulminans and erythema nodosum during isotretinoin therapy responding to dapsone. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1997;22(1):26–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Seukeran D, Cunliffe W. The treatment of acne fulminans: a review of 25 cases. Br J Dermatol. 1999;141:307–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Charakida A, Mouser P, Chu A. Safety and side effects of the acne drug, oral isotretinoin. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2004;3(2):119–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Bigby M, Stern RS. Adverse reactions to isotretinoin: a report from the Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting System. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988;18(3):543–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Roytman M, Frumkin A, Bohn TG. Pseudotumor cerebri caused by isotretinoin. Cutis. 1988;42(5):399–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Shalita AR, Cunningham WJ, Leyden JJ, Pochi PE, Strauss JS. Isotretinoin treatment of acne and related disorders: an update. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1983;9(4):629–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Crockett SD, Porter CQ, Martin CF, Sandler RS, Kappelman MD. Isotretinoin use and the risk of inflammatory bowel disease: a case–control study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105(9):1986–93.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Reddy D, Siegel CA, Sands BE, Kane S. Possible association between isotretinoin and inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101(7):1569–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Ellis CN, Krach KJ. Uses and complications of isotretinoin therapy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;45(5):S150–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Landau M, Mesterman R, Ophir J, Mevorah B, Alcalay J, Harel A, et al. Clinical significance of markedly elevated serum creatine kinase levels in patients with acne on isotretinoin. Acta Derm Venereol. 2001;81(5):350–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Ladizinski B, Lee KC, Federman DG. Hypertriglyceridemia: what the dermatologist needs to know. JAMA Dermatol. 2013;149(10):1145–6. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2013.4316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Mantel-Teeuwisse AK, Kloosterman JM, Maitland-van der Zee AH, Klungel OH, Porsius AJ, de Boer A. Drug-induced lipid changes. Drug Saf. 2001;24(6):443–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Altman RS, Altman LJ, Altman JS. A proposed set of new guidelines for routine blood tests during isotretinoin therapy for acne vulgaris. Dermatology. 2001;204(3):232–5.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Azoulay L, Blais L, Koren G, LeLorier J, Berard A. Does isotretinoin increase the risk of depression? J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69(4):526–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Dunn LK, O’Neill JL, Feldman SR. Acne in adolescents: quality of life, self-esteem, mood and psychological disorders. Dermatol Online J. 2011;17(1).Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Jacobs DG, Deutsch NL, Brewer M. Suicide, depression, and isotretinoin: is there a causal link? J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;45(5):S168–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Kontaxakis VP, Skourides D, Ferentinos P, Havaki-Kontaxaki BJ, Papadimitriou GN. Isotretinoin and psychopathology: a review. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2009;8(2).Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Magin P, Pond D, Smith W. Isotretinoin, depression and suicide: a review of the evidence. Br J Gener Pract J Royal Coll Gener Pract. 2005;55(511):134–8.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Bérard A, Azoulay L, Koren G, Blais L, Perreault S, Oraichi D. Isotretinoin, pregnancies, abortions and birth defects: a population-based perspective. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2007;63(2):196–205.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Lammer EJ, Chen DT, Hoar RM, Agnish ND, Benke PJ, Braun JT, et al. Retinoic acid embryopathy. N Engl J Med. 1985;313(14):837–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Werner CA, Papic MJ, Ferris LK, Schwarz EB. Promoting safe use of isotretinoin by increasing contraceptive knowledge. JAMA Dermatol. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2014.4171. Epub 4 Feb 2015.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mollie D. Oudenhoven
    • 1
  • Megan A. Kinney
    • 1
  • Diana B. McShane
    • 1
  • Craig N. Burkhart
    • 1
  • Dean S. Morrell
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of DermatologyUniversity of North Carolina School of MedicineChapel HillUSA

Personalised recommendations