American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 259–269 | Cite as

A Literature Review of Genetic Markers Conferring Impaired Response to Cardiovascular Drugs

  • Hitesh Shukla
  • Jessica Louise Mason
  • Abdullah SabyahEmail author
Review Article


Pharmacogenetics is an emerging area of medicine, and more work is needed to fully integrate it into a clinical setting for the benefit of patients. Genetic markers can influence the action of many drugs, including those that prevent and treat cardiovascular conditions. Genotyping is not yet commonplace, but guidelines are being put in place to help practitioners determine the effect a genetic marker may have on certain drugs. With advancements in genetic technology and falling costs, genotyping could be available to all patients via a simple saliva test. This would be a cost-effective way for practitioners to determine the most effective treatment for individuals, reducing “trial and error,” adverse effects, and rehospitalization rates and increasing patient compliance. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of death worldwide, so using the most effective medication to treat or prevent them is of utmost importance in reducing incidence and mortality.


Compliance with Ethical Standards


No external funding was used in the preparation of this manuscript.

Conflicts of interest

Hitesh Shukla, Jessica Mason, and Abdullah Sabyah have no conflicts of interest that might be relevant to the contents of this manuscript. The authors declare that the text of the manuscript is part of a literature review article under which the markers discussed are part of a gene panel list used by the “Heart DNA Test” service for Rightangled Ltd. The authors are employed by Rightangled Ltd.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hitesh Shukla
    • 1
  • Jessica Louise Mason
    • 2
  • Abdullah Sabyah
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Rightangled LtdCoventryUK
  2. 2.Rightangled LtdBirminghamUK

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