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American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 275–284 | Cite as

Drug Interaction Between Clopidogrel and Ranitidine or Omeprazole in Stable Coronary Artery Disease: A Double-Blind, Double Dummy, Randomized Study

  • Remo Holanda de Mendonça FurtadoEmail author
  • Robert Patrick Giugliano
  • Celia Maria Cassaro Strunz
  • Cyrillo Cavalheiro Filho
  • José Antonio Franchini Ramires
  • Roberto Kalil Filho
  • Pedro Alves Lemos Neto
  • Alexandre Costa Pereira
  • Tânia Rúbia Rocha
  • Beatriz Tonon Freire
  • Elbio Antonio D’Amico
  • José Carlos Nicolau
Original Research Article

Abstract

Background

Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are often prescribed to patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). However, this class of medication, especially omeprazole, has been associated with a reduction in clopidogrel efficacy, leading many clinicians to substitute omeprazole with ranitidine.

Objectives

Our objective was to compare the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel before and after the addition of omeprazole or ranitidine.

Methods

We measured platelet aggregability at baseline and after 1 week of clopidogrel 75 mg daily. Subjects were then randomized in a double-blinded, double-dummy fashion to omeprazole 20 mg twice daily (bid) or ranitidine 150 mg bid. We repeated aggregability tests after 1 additional week, using VerifyNow P2Y12™ (Accumetrics; San Diego, CA, USA), depicting aggregability as percent inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA).

Results

We enrolled 41 patients in the omeprazole group and 44 in the ranitidine group. IPA was significantly decreased after the addition of omeprazole to clopidogrel (from 26.3 ± 32.9 to 17.4 ± 33.1 %; p = 0.025), with no statistical significant changes observed in the ranitidine group (from 32.6 ± 28.9 to 30.1 ± 31.3 %; p = 0.310). The comparison of IPA in both groups at the end of the follow-up showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07, 95 % confidence interval [CI] −1.19 to 26.59); after excluding homozygous patients for 2C19*2 genotype, the comparison of IPA between the groups reached statistical significance (32.7 ± 30.8 vs. 17.7 ± 33.4 %, respectively, for ranitidine and omeprazole groups; p = 0.04).

Conclusions

Unlike omeprazole, ranitidine did not influence platelet aggregability response to clopidogrel.

Clinical Trial Registration

NCT01896557.

Keywords

Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Acute Coronary Syndrome Clopidogrel Omeprazole Atorvastatin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Paul A Gurbel (Sinai Center for Thrombosis Research, Baltimore, MD, USA) and Marco Cattaneo (University of Milan, Milan, Italy) for their contribution to the study protocol.

Author contributions

JC Nicolau and RHM Furtado: conception, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting the manuscript; RP Giugliano: analysis and interpretation of data, drafting the manuscript; CMC Strunz, C Cavalheiro Filho, AC Pereira, EA D´Amico, JAF Ramires, R Kalil Filho, PA.Lemos Neto, TR Rocha, BT Freire: critically revised the manuscript and made important contributions to its final format.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Our protocol is in accordance with the recommendations of the Helsinki Declaration and Good Clinical Practice norms on medical research in humans. The Heart Institute Ethics Committee approved the protocol before study inclusion began. All patients signed an ICF before participating in the protocol. All authors fulfilled conflict of interest disclosure forms.

Funding

This study was financially supported by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP), process #2010/16324-1. The funder did not participate in protocol design, study conduct, or statistical analysis.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Remo Holanda de Mendonça Furtado
    • 1
    Email author
  • Robert Patrick Giugliano
    • 2
  • Celia Maria Cassaro Strunz
    • 1
  • Cyrillo Cavalheiro Filho
    • 1
  • José Antonio Franchini Ramires
    • 1
  • Roberto Kalil Filho
    • 1
  • Pedro Alves Lemos Neto
    • 1
  • Alexandre Costa Pereira
    • 1
  • Tânia Rúbia Rocha
    • 3
  • Beatriz Tonon Freire
    • 1
  • Elbio Antonio D’Amico
    • 3
  • José Carlos Nicolau
    • 1
  1. 1.Heart Institute, University of São Paulo Medical SchoolSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  3. 3.Clinics Hospital, University of São Paulo Medical SchoolSão PauloBrazil

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