Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are considered to be one of the major contaminants of drinking water and natural water bodies. Some of the well documented polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are water pollutants and were considered for analysis in this study included benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BgP), and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene (InD). This study aimed at determining the levels of concentrations of basically five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 57 drinking water bodies located around Samsun, Ordu, Giresun, Çorum, Amasya, Kastamonu and Sinop provinces.
Materials and method
In this study, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) method 550.1 for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking by Liquid-Solid Extraction (LSE) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with Coupled Ultraviolet (CD) and Fluorescence Detection (FD) was used. Sampling procedures were done according to the validated method specified by the Turkish Ministry of Enivironment and Forestry. Prior to the determination of concentrations by HPLC, PAHs contained in the samples were separated from the solid phase by Solid-Phase Extraction (SPE). All data analyses were conducted using SPSS and Excel.
Obtained results from the investigation revealed that the average total PAH and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) concentration levels in drinking water samples taken from the central districts of Samsun were 2.73 ± 1.51 and 0.35 ± 0.24 ng/L respectively. In drinking water samples taken from Ordu, Giresun, Çorum, Amasya, Kastamonu and Sinop, the average total PAH concentrations were found to be 5.85 ± 3.82 ng/L, 3.79 ± 1.27 ng/L, 1.08 ± 0.62 ng/L, 2.42 ± 1.04 ng/L; 1.92 ± 0.35 ng/L and 4.07 ± 2.33 ng/L respectively. The average (BaP) concentrations for the same named locations were determined as 0.97 ± 0.75 ng/L; 0.55 ± 0.29 ng/L; 0.11 ± 0.08 ng/L; 0.35 ± 0.10 ng/L; 0.14 ± 0.04 ng/L; 0.39 ± 0.23 ng/L, respectively. It is therefore evident that the values of PAH and BaP in drinking water were below the limits of 100 and 10 ng/L specified in the Regulation on Water Intended for Human Consumption. These values are below the set limits proposed by Turkish legislation and WHO.
All the results for drinking water, usable water and natural spring water were below the values specified in the Regulation on Water Intended for Human Consumption and WHO. The PAH content of the studied river waters as well were below the limits proposed by Turkish legislation and WHO.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Guo H, Lee SC, Ho KF, Wang XM, Zou SC. Particle-Associated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Air of Hong Kong. Atmos Environ. 2003;37:5307–17.
Celino JJ, Corseuil HX, Fernandes M, Garcia KS. Distribution and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Aquatic Environment: A Multivariate Analysis. Rem Revista Escola de Minas. 2010;63(2):211–8.
Guo W, He M, Yang Z, Lin C, Quan X, Wang H. Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water, Suspended Particulate Matter and Sediment from Daliao River Watershed, China. Chemospher. 2007;68:93–104.
Amoako J, Osmund D, Ansa-Asare OD, Karikari AY, Dartey G. Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Densu River Basin of Ghana. Environ Monitor Assess. 2011;174:471–80.
Yurchenko S, Molder U. The Determination of Polycyclic Hydrocarbons in Smoked Fish by Gas chromatography Mass Spektrometry with Positive-ion Chemical Ionization. J Food Compos and Anal. 2005;18:857–69.
Goodarzi PK. Mukhopadhyay (Muki): Metals and Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons in the Drinking Water of the Sydney Basin, Nova Scotia,Canada: A Preliminary Assessment of their Source. Int J Coal Geology. 2000;43:357–72.
Girelli AM, Apriceno A, Tarola AM, Tortora F. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Tea Infusions Samples by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorimetric Detection. J Food Quality. 2017;2017:1–7.
Urbe I, Ruana J. Application of Solid-Phase Extraction Discs with a Glass Fiber Matrix to Fast Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water. J Chromatogr A. 1997;778:337–45.
Hii TM, Basheer C, Lee HK. Commercial Polymeric Fiber as Sorbent for Solid-Phase Microextraction Combined with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for the Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:7520–6.
Olivella MA, Ribalta TG, de Febrer AR. Mollet JM, de las Heras FXC: Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Riverine Waters after Mediterranean Forest Fires. Sci Total Environ. 2006;355:156–66.
Tillner J, Hollard C, Bach C, Rosin C, Munoz JF, Dauchy X. Simultaneous Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and their Chlorination by-Products in Drinking Water and the Coatings of Water Pipes by Automated Solid Phase Microextraction Followed by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2013;1315:36–46.
Caylak E, Tokar M. Investigating Chemical and Microbiological Contaminants in Drinking Water of Cankiri Province, Turkey. Environ Earth Sci. 2012;67(7):2015–25.
Demir V, Ergin S. Occurrence and Assessment of Chemical Contaminants in Drinking Water in Tunceli, Turkey. J Chem. 2013;2013:1–6.
Wilson WB, Campiglia AD. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with Molecular Weight 302 in Water Samples by Solid-Phase Nano-Extraction and Laser Excited Time-Resolved Shpol’skii Spectroscopy. Analyst. 2011;136:3366–74.
Badawy MI, Emababy MA. Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Drinking Water in Egypt. Desalination. 2010;251(1–3):34–40.
Zhu L, Chen Y, Zhou R. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, sediment and soil in drinking water resource of Zhejiang Province, China. J Hazar Mater. 2008;150:308–16.
Sun JH, Wang GL, Chai Y, Zhang G, Li J, Feng J. Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Henan Reach of the Yellow River, Middle China. Ecotoxicol and Environ Safety. 2009;72:1614–24.
Srogi K. Monitoring of Environmental Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: a Review. Environ Chem Lett. 2007;5:169–95.
Anonym: Su kirliliğiyönetmeliği numune alma ve analiz metodları tebliği, 2004.https://mevzuattakip.com.tr/mevzuat/su-kirliligi-kontrolu-yonetmeligi-numune-alma-ve- analiz-metodlari-tebligi
Hodgeson JW, Bashe WJ, Baker TV: Method 550.1 Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Drinking Water by Liquid-Solid Extraction and HPLC with Coupled Ultraviolet and Fluorescence Detection, Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory Office Of Research And Development, U.S.EPA, Cincinnati, Ohio 45,268, 1990, p.
Anonym: Regulation on Water Intended for Human Consumption, 2005. http://www.mevzuat.net/legislation/item/5458.
World Health Organizations (WHO): Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, 4th edition. World Health Organization; 2011.https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/44584/9789241548151_eng .pdf;jsessionid = B8AF3CA0F8903EF918F0D217861D8A23?sequence = 1
Karyab H, Yunesian M, Nasseri S, Mahvi AH, Ahmadkhaniha R, Rastkari N, et al. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Drinking Water of Tehran, Iran. Iran J Environ Health Sci Eng. 2013;25(11):1–7.
Kabzinski AKM, Cyran J, Juszczak R: Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water (Including Drinking Water) of Lodz. Pol J Environ Stud 2002, 11(6): 695–706. http://www.pjoes.com/Determination-of-Polycyclicaromatic- hydrocarbons-in-water-including-drinking-water,87,510,0,2.html
Li J, Shang X, Zhao Z, Tanguay RL, Dong Q, Huang C. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water, Sediment, Soil, and Plants of the Aojiang River Waterway in Wenzhou, China. J Hazar Mater. 2010;173(1–3):75–81.
Wang H, Liu Z, Sun L, Wang Y, Luo Q, Wu H, et al. Characterization and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Surface Water from Liaohe River, Northeast China. Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds. 2018;5:389–401.
Huang J, Zhang Z, Yu G. Occurrence of Dissolved PAHs in the Jinsha River (Panzhihua)-Upper Reaches of the Yangtze River, Southwest China. J Environ Monit. 2003;5:604–9.
Cao Z, Wang Y, Ma Y, Xu Z, Shi G, Zhuang Y, et al. Occurrence and Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Reclaimed Water and Surface Water of Tianjin, China. J Hazar Mater. 2005;122(1–2):51–9.
Karyab H, Yunesian M, Nasseri S, Rastkari N, Mahvi AH, Nabizadeh R. Carcinogen Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Drinking Water, Using Probabilistic Approaches, Iran. Iran J Public Health. 2016;45(11):1455–64.
This study is summarized from the master thesis which was accepted by the Ondokuz Mayis University Natural Sciences Institutes. A vote of thanks goes to the Institute of Samsun Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency for allowing the of their laboratory and the help rendered during the sampling stage.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Aygun, S.F., Bagcevan, B. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in drinking water of Samsun and it’s surrounding areas, Turkey. J Environ Health Sci Engineer (2020) doi:10.1007/s40201-019-00436-0
- Drinking water
- Natural spring water