Determination of the selected heavy metal and metalloid contents in various types of plastic bags
- 17 Downloads
The immense plastic bags (PBs) consumption is the potential threat for environment and public health due to discharging toxic pollutants (i.e., metals and metalloids) throughout its entire life cycle. The purpose of the study was to investigate the heavy metal (HM) contents in PE, HDPE, LDPE and PVC bags with several colors and applications. The HM contents in the PB were analyzed by ICP–OES after acid digestion. Results demonstrated that the HM contents in PB notably disagreed based on the used polymer types, colors and applications. The highest contents of Pb, Cr, Cd, As, Cu and Zn were 66, 75, 16, 28, 96 and 154 in mg/kg unit, respectively in PE bags; 71, 74, 34, 39, 430 and 212 in mg/kg unit, respectively in HDPE bags; 12, 74, 23, 43, 158 and 54 in mg/kg unit, respectively in LDPE bags; and 16, 23, 474, 12, 45 and 90 in mg/kg unit, respectively in PVC bags. Furthermore, 12 out of 36 PB samples were noticed to violate the standards (ISO 8124-3) in terms of Pb, Cr, Cd and As contents. So there is the potentiality of HM and metalloid pollution from discarded PB during treatment, recycling and disposal.
KeywordsEnvironment Health Heavy metal Plastic bag Pollution
The authors acknowledge financial support from the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program, No. 2011CB201500).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
There is no conflict of interest in terms of authorship and funding sources.
- 4.Andreoni V, Saveyn HGM, Eder P. Polyethylene recycling: waste policy scenario analysis for the EU-27. J. Environ Manag. 2015;158:103–10.Google Scholar
- 7.Bahri G. Sustainable management of plastic bag waste: the case of Nairobi, Kenya. Thesis submitted for M.Sc. in Environmental Management and Policy, Lund University, Sweden; 2005.Google Scholar
- 12.CBI Market Information Database. EU legislation: packaging and packaging waste. 2011.Google Scholar
- 18.Dilli R. Comparison of existing life cycle analysis of shopping bag alternatives. Final Report: Hyder Consulting Pty Ltd, Australia; 2007.Google Scholar
- 20.Eurofins. Challenges ahead with the new EN71–3 standard: migration of certain elements. 2013.Google Scholar
- 21.European Commission (Heath and Consumer Directorate-General). Union guidelines on regulation (EU) No 10/2011 on plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food. 2014.Google Scholar
- 22.European Committee for Standardization. EN 1186–1: materials and articles in contact with foodstuffs. Plastics. Part 1: guide to the selection of conditions and test methods for overall migration. Brussels: European Committee for Standardization. 2002.Google Scholar
- 26.Jacobsen S. Plastic bag pollution. 2005. Available at http://www.dpw.lacounty.gov/epd/PlasticBags/Articles/Googobits_07-21-05.pdf. Accessed 17 July 2016.
- 29.Joint Technical Committee CS-018. AS-NZS 8124–3 (2012) (English): Safety of toys -Part 3: Migration of certain elements [By Authority of New Zealand Product Safety Standards (Children's Toys) Regulations 2005 (SR 2005/236)]. 2012.Google Scholar
- 31.Khan S, Khan AR. Contamination of toxic heavy metal in locally made plastic food packaging containers. Global J Sci Front Res B Chem. 2015;15(1):19–24.Google Scholar
- 33.Kumar A, Pastore P. Lead and cadmium in soft plastic toys. Curr Sci. 2007;93(6):818–22.Google Scholar
- 35.Lajeunesse S. Plastic bags. Chem Eng News. 2004;82(38):51p.Google Scholar
- 36.Lakherwal D. A review: adsorption of heavy metals. Int J Environ Res Dev. 2014;4(1):41–8.Google Scholar
- 40.Mahar M, Almeida M, Brown P. Determination of toxic elements leached from toys and household structures by inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectroscopy. 2009. http://www.spectroscopyonline.com/determination-toxic-elements-leached-toys-and-household-structures-inductively-coupled-plasma-optica. Accessed 10 Feb 2017.
- 41.Malaxechevarria Y, Millán E. Application of experimental design to the optimization of a wet acid digestion procedure for cd determination in plastic materials by atomic absorption spectrometry, spectroscopy. An Int J Rapid Commun. 2009;42(1):12–9.Google Scholar
- 42.Miller R.M., 2012. Plastic shopping bags: an analysis of policy instruments for plastic bag reduction. Thesis submitted for M.Sc. in Sustainable Development, Faculty of Geosciences, Universiteit .Google Scholar
- 44.Nakashima E, Isobe A, Kako S, Magome S, Deki N, Itai T, Takahashi S. Toxic metals in polyethylene plastic litter. In: Omori, K., Guo, X., Yoshie, N., Fujii, N., Handoh, I.C., Isobe, A., Tanabe, S., Interdisciplinary studies on environmental chemistry –marine environmental modeling & analysis (Eds.). 2011. pp.271–277.Google Scholar
- 45.Nham TT. Monitoring heavy metals by ICP-OES for compliance with RoHS and WEEE directives. Agilent Technologies, Inc., the USA. 2010. Available at http://www.agilent.com/cs/library/applications/io-040.pdf. Accessed 17 Oct 2015.
- 47.Omolaoye JA, Uzairu A, Gimba CE. Heavy metal assessment of some soft plastic toys imported into Nigeria from China. J Environ Chem Ecotoxicol. 2010;2(8):126–30.Google Scholar
- 51.PlasticsEurope. Plastics – the facts 2013: an analysis of European latest plastics production, Demand and Waste Data. Association of Plastics Manufacturers. 2013.Google Scholar
- 52.Ramaswamy V, Sharma HR. Plastic bags – threat to environment and cattle health: a retrospective study from Gondar City of Ethiopia. The IIOAB J Special Issue Environ Manage Sust Dev. 2011;2(1):7–12.Google Scholar
- 54.Rivers N, Shenstone-Harris S, Young N. Using nudges to reduce waste? The case of Toronto's plastic bag levy. J. Environ Manag. 2017;188:153–62.Google Scholar
- 56.Shanghai (Reuters). China faces 160,000 tonnes of packaging waste after Singles' Day buying binge. 2017. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-singles-day-waste/china-faces-waste-hangover-after-singles-day-buying-binge-idUSKBN1DH0WO (Accessed on 25 Jan., 2018).
- 59.Tilley K. Some Australian hospitals recycling PVC medical waste. 2013. Available at http://www.plasticsnews.com/article/20130515/NEWS/130519954/some-australian-hospitals-recycling-pvc-medical-waste. Accessed 5 March 2016.
- 60.U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Review of metals in the toy safety standard, ASTM F 963 03/14/2012. 2012.Google Scholar
- 61.Velis CA. Global recycling markets - plastic waste: a story for one player – China. Report prepared by FUELogy and formatted by D-waste on behalf of international solid waste Association - Globalisation and Waste Management Task Force. ISWA, Vienna; 2014.Google Scholar
- 63.Williamson LJ. It’s not my bag, baby! On Earth: Environmental Politics People. 2003;25(2):32–4.Google Scholar