Advertisement

Solid waste composition and the properties of biodegradable fractions in Izmir City, Turkey: an investigation on the influencing factors

  • Ayşenur Bölükbaş
  • Görkem Akıncı
Research Article
  • 24 Downloads

Abstract

Background

Waste composition and characteristics are determinative in selecting technological alternatives to develop waste management strategies that can meet legislative requirements. The aim of this study is to identify the major factors influencing the municipal solid waste (MSW) composition and the properties of its biodegradable fraction in İzmir city, Turkey.

Methods

MSW composition was determined in samples collected from different income level areas of the city. Water and organic matter contents, calorific value, and the total chlorine levels in seven biodegradable waste (Bio-MSW) size fractions (between >120 mm and > 10 mm) and in the fine fraction (<10 mm) were analyzed. The data on waste components and Bio-MSW properties were statistically investigated.

Results

The average shares of biodegradables and recyclables in MSW were found as 50.2 and 40.3%, respectively. The organic matter content of Bio-MSW increased with waste size (r = 0.313, p < 0.05) and its calorific value were in the range of 2310–3686 kcal/kg. A link between the plastics’ share in MSW and the Bio-MSW chlorine levels was recognized (r: 0.666, p < 0.1). PCA analysis identified the main factors degrading the Bio-MSW quality as the cross contamination due to the mixed collection (30.8%), compaction applied in waste trucks (27.5%), and the inert broken materials trapped in larger fractions (21.3%).

Conclusion

Strong negative impact of mixed collection on Bio-MSW quality indicated that implementation of source separated collection of MSW is crucial for Izmir city in order to develop an integrated waste management system that meets the legal requirements by means of end product quality.

Keywords

Biodegradable waste Calorific value Chlorine Mixed collection PCA Waste composition 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Dokuz Eylul University Research Fund [grant number: 2014.KB.FEN.036], Izmir, Turkey. The authors would like to thank Izmir Metropolitan Municipality –Waste Management Office staff for the support they supplied for the collection and transport of samples.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Chatterjee R. Municipal solid waste management in Kohima City-India. J Environ HealthSci Eng. 2010;7(2):173–80.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Huang W, Wang J, Dai X, Li M, Harder MK. More than financial investment is needed: food waste recycling pilots in Shanghai, China. J Clean Prod 2014;67:107–116.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Moy P, Krishnan N, Ulloa P, Cohen S, Brandt-Rauf PW. Options for management of municipal solid waste in new York City: a preliminary comparison of health risks and policy implications. J Environ Manag. 2008;87:73–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2007.01.032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhen-Shan L, Lei Y, Xiao-Yan Q, Yu-Mei S. Municipal solid waste management in Beijing City. Waste Manag. 2009;29:2596–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2009.03.018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Akinci G, Guven ED. Municipal solid waste: introduction sources, trends, quality and quantity. In: Municipal solid waste: management strategies, challenges and future directions, Nikolaos Tzortzakis, editor. Waste and Waste Management Series. New York: Nova Science Publishers; 2017. p. 447.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Geerts B, Linacre E. Sunspots and climate. 1997. http://www-das.uwyo.edu/~geerts/cwx/notes/chap02/sunspots.html. Accessed 9 Jun 2018.
  7. 7.
    Issar AS, Zohar M. Climate change - environment and civilization in the Middle East. Germany: Springer Science & Business Media; 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sewell WRD, Kates RW, Phillips LE. Human response to weather and climate geographical contributions. Geogr Rev. 1968;5814025(2):262–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shekdar AV. Sustainable solid waste management: an integrated approach for Asian countries. Waste Manag. 2009;29:1438–48.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2008.08.025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    The Ministry of Environment and Urbanization. Ulusal Atık Yöneti̇mi̇ Ve Eylem Planı 2023. 2016. http://www.csb.gov.tr/db/cygm/editordosya/Ulusal_Atik_Yonetimi_ve_Eylem_Plani.pdf. Accessed 8 Jun 2018.
  11. 11.
    EuroStat. Waste generation and treatment. 2018. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/environment/waste/database. Accessed 8 Jun 2018.
  12. 12.
    OECD. Municipal waste, Generation and treatment. 2018. http://stats.oecd.org/#. Accessed 8 Jun 2018.
  13. 13.
    Kalogirou, E., & Sakalis, A. Overview of the waste management situation and planning in Greece. 2016; Retrieved from http://www.vivis.de/phocadownload/Download/2016_wm/2016_WM_107-116_Kalogirou.pdf
  14. 14.
    Khayamabshi, E. Current Status of Waste Management in Iran and Business Opportunities, Waste Management on Occasion of Smart Engineering Tokyo 2016, United nations industrial development organization. 2016; retrieved from http://www.unido.or.jp/files/Iran-updated.pdf
  15. 15.
    Chabuk A, Al-Ansari N, Hussain HM, Knutsson S, Pusch R. Present status of solid waste Management at Babylon Governorate, Iraq. Iraq Eng. 2013;7(7):408–23.  https://doi.org/10.4236/eng.2015.77037.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hoornweg D, Bhada-Tata P. What a Waste: A Global Review of Solid Waste Management. Urban Development Series; Knowledge Papers No.15, World Bank, vol. 116; 2012.  https://doi.org/10.1111/febs.13058.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. Bertaraf/Geri Kazanım Yöntemleri ve Belediye Atık Miktarı. Retrieved August 14, 2018; from http://www.tuik.gov.tr/UstMenu.do?metod=temelist
  18. 18.
    European Union. Directive 1999/31/EC on landfill of waste. 1999. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:31999L0031&from=en. Accessed 18 Apr 2018.
  19. 19.
    European Parliament and Council. Directive 2008/98/EC on waste and repealing certain directives. 2008. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32008L0098&from=EN. Accessed 18 Apr 2018.
  20. 20.
    Mühle S, Balsam I, Cheeseman CR. Comparison of carbon emissions associated with municipal solid waste management in Germany and the UK. Resour Conserv Recy. 2009;54:793–801.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2009.12.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Environmental Protection Agency. Materials generated in the municipal waste stream, 1960 to 2014. In: advancing sustainable materials management: 2014 tables and figures, assessing trends in material generation, recycling, composting, combustion with energy recovery and landfilling in the United States. 2016.https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-11/documents/2014_smm_tablesfigures_508.pdf. Accessed 17 Apr 2018.
  22. 22.
    Rezaei M, Ghobadian B, Samadi SH, Karimi S. Electric power generation from municipal solid waste: a techno-economical assessment under different scenarios in Iran. Energ. 2018;15:46–56.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2017.10.109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Abbas AAK, Al-rekabi WS, Yousif YT. Integrated solid waste Management for Urban Area in Basrah District. J Babylon Univ/Eng Sci. 2016;24(3):666–75 Retrieved from https://www.iasj.net/iasj?func=fulltext&aId=112756.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    The Ministry of Environment and Urbanization. 2017 yılı il çevre durum raporları. 2017. http://ced.csb.gov.tr/2017-yili-il-cevre-durum-raporlari-i-85928. Accessed 9 Jun 2018.
  25. 25.
    Metin E, Eröztürk A, Neyim C. Solid waste management practices and review of recovery and recycling operations in Turkey. Waste Manag. 2003;23:425–32.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0956-053X(03)00070-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Akinci G, Guven ED, Gok G. Evaluation of waste management options and resource conservation potentials according to the waste characteristics and household income: a case study in Aegean region. Turkey Resour Conserv Recy. 2012;58:114–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2011.11.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hasnine MDT, Bilgili MS, Bahauddin KM, Engin G. Alam M,Afrin T. exploring the. Challenge and scope of solid waste management: a comparative analysis of Bangladesh and Turkey. In: Eurasia, vol. 2016. Istanbul: Waste Management Symposium; 2016.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    European Parliament and Council. Directive 2000/76/EC on the incineration of waste. 2000.https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32000L0076&from=EN. Accessed 18 Apr 2018.
  29. 29.
    European Parliament. Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC. 2009. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32009L0028&from=EN. Accessed 18 Apr 2018.
  30. 30.
    Resmi Gazete. Atıkların Düzenli Depolanmasına Dair Yönetmelik, Çevre ve Orman Bakanlığı. 2010. http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2010/03/20100326-13.htm. Accessed 8 Jun 2018.
  31. 31.
    Resmi Gazete. Ambalaj ve Ambalaj Atıklarının Kontrolü Yönetmeliği, Çevre ve Orman Bakanlığı. 2011. http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2011/08/20110824-6.htm. Accessed 8 Jun 2018.
  32. 32.
    Ozcan H, Guvenc S, Guvenc L, Demir G, Ozcan HK, Guvenc SY, et al. Municipal solid waste characterization according to different income levels: a case study. Sustain. 2016;8(10):1044.  https://doi.org/10.3390/su8101044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Taşpınar F, Uslu MA. Evaluation of combustibility and energy potential of municipal solid waste: the case of Esenler municipality. Int J Energy Appl and Technol. 2018;5(1):1–8 Retrieved from www.dergipark.gov.tr/ijeat.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Al-Jarallah R, Aleisa E. A baseline study characterizing the municipal solid waste in the State of Kuwait. Waste Manag. 2014;34(5):952–60.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.WASMAN.2014.02.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Miezah K, Obiri-Danso K, Kádár Z, Fei-Baffoe B, Mensah MY. Municipal solid waste characterization and quantification as a measure towards effective waste management in Ghana. Waste Manag. 2015;46:15–27.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.WASMAN.2015.09.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Edjabou ME, Jensen MB, Götze R, Pivnenko K, Petersen C, Scheutz C, et al. Municipal solid waste composition: sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation. Waste Manag. 2015;36:12–23.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2014.11.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Aslani H, Taghipour H. Seasonal characterization and quantification of municipal solid waste: energy content and statistical analysis. J Adv Environ Health Res. 2018;6:34–43.  https://doi.org/10.22102/jaehr.2018.105728.1053.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    TurkStat. Population of provinces by years. 2018. http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/UstMenu.do?metod=temelist. Accessed 19 Jun 2018.
  39. 39.
    Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü. İzmir- illere göre mevsim normalleri (1981–2010). 2018. https://www.mgm.gov.tr/veridegerlendirme/il-ve-ilceler-istatistik.aspx?m=IZMIR.Accessed 16 Mar 2018.
  40. 40.
    TMMOB. İzmir çevre durum raporu. 2017. http://www.cmo.org.tr/resimler/ekler/e12115662e1d4ad_ek.pdf?tipi=78&turu=H&sube=3. Accessed 9 Jun 2018.
  41. 41.
    TurkStat. Solid waste statistics of municipalities. 2018. https://biruni.tuik.gov.tr/medas/?kn=119&locale=tr. Accessed 18 Jun 2018.
  42. 42.
    Çevre ve Orman Bakanlığı. Katı Atık Ana Planı. Katı Atık Oluşumu ve Karakterizasyonu Raporu. Prepared by MİMKO for Çevre Yönetimi Genel Müdürlüğü Atiık Yönetimi Daire Başkanlığı, vol. 35; 2006.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    APHA-AWWA-WPCF. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association. 18th ed. Washington, DC: American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation; 1992. p. 1–834.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    ASTM International. Standard test method for determination of forms of chlorine in refuse-derived fuel; 2018.  https://doi.org/10.1520/E0776-16.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    ASTM International. Standard test method for gross calorific and ash value of waste materials; 2018.  https://doi.org/10.1520/D5468-02R07.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    TurkStat. Consumption expenditure statistics. 2018. http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1012. Accessed 9 Jun 2018.
  47. 47.
    CCPAS Chambers of Certified Public Accountants of Sakarya . 2015 yılı asgari ücret açıklandı. 2018. http://www.sakaryasmmmo.org.tr/Yazi/2015-yili-Asgari-Ucret%2D%2Daciklandi-2536. Accessed 9 Jun 2018.
  48. 48.
    TurkStat. Poverty statistics. 2018. http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1013. Accessed 9 Jun 2018.
  49. 49.
    Izmirgaz. Natural gas in Izmir. 2016. http://www.izmirgaz.com.tr/tr/Izmir-Dogalgaz/Dogalgaz/Izmir-de-Dogalgaz.html. Accessed 16 Mar 2018.
  50. 50.
    Wilson DC, Araba AO, Chinwah K, Cheeseman CR. Building recycling rates through the informal sector. Waste Manag. 2009;29(2):629–35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2008.06.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Günden C, Bilgic A, Miran B, Karli B. A censored system of demand analysis to unpacked and prepackaged milk consumption in Turkey. Qual and Quant. 2011;45(6):1273–90.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-011-9501-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Özsoy M. User preferences on transformations of shopping centers into private urban public spaces : the case of Izmir. Turkey Afr J Bus Manag. 2010;4(10):1990–2005 Retrieved from http://www.academicjournals.org/AJBM.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Troschinetz AM, Mihelcic JR. Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries. Waste Manag. 2009;29(2):915–23.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2008.04.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Banar M, Özkan A. Characterization of the municipal solid waste in Eskisehir City, Turkey. Environ Eng Sci. 2008;25(8):1213–20.  https://doi.org/10.1089/ees.2007.0164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    İzmir Büyükşehir Belediyesi. Katı Atık Değerlendirme ve Bertaraf İşlemleri. Retrieved August 20, 2018a, from http://www.izmir.bel.tr/tr/Projeler/kati-atik-degerlendirme-ve-bertaraf-islemleri/1312/4
  56. 56.
    İzmir Büyükşehir Belediyesi. Yeni Katı Atık Değerlendirme ve Bertaraf Tesisleri Kuruluyor. Retrieved August 20, 2018b, from http://www.izmir.bel.tr/tr/Projeler/yeni-kati-atik-degerlendirme-ve-bertaraf-tesisleri-kuruluyor/1317/4
  57. 57.
  58. 58.
    European Commission. Refuse derived fuel, current practice and perspectives. 2003; July:1–219.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wang L-C, Lee W-J, Lee W-S, Chang-Chien G-P, Tsai P-J. Effect of chlorine content in feeding wastes of incineration on the emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans. Sci Total Environ. 2003;302(1–3):185–98.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(02)00306-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    TÇMB. Türk çimento sektörünün alternatif yakıt ve alternatif hammadde kullanımı yaklaşımı. 2014. http://www.tcma.org.tr/images/file/Turk_cimento_sektorunun_alternatif_yakit_hammadde_kullanim_yaklasimi_Kasim_2014.pdf. Accessed 8 Jun 2018.
  61. 61.
    Ordu Ş, Öztürk E. Çimento fabrikalarında alternatif hammadde ve yakıt kullanımı: örnek çalışma alternative. Doğal Afetler ve Çevre Dergisi, Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi, Doğal Afetler Uygulama ve Araştırma Merkezi. 2017; 10.21324/dacd.293309.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Beckmann M, Ncube S. Characterisation of refuse derived fuels (RDF) in reference to the fuel technical properties. 8th European Conference on industrial furnaces and boilers, INFUB-8, Vilamoura - Algarve, Portugal. 2008:1–15.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    European Compost Network (ECN). The ECN concept for quality assurance of compost. In: ECN quality assurance system. 2010. https://www.kompost.de/uploads/media/06_ECN_ECN_QAS.pdf. Accessed 17 Apr 2018.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental EngineeringDokuz Eylul UniversityIzmirTurkey

Personalised recommendations