Advertisement

Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects of water boiled in aluminum vessels on Allium cepa root tip cells

  • Zahra Zendehboodi
Short Report
  • 5 Downloads

Abstract

Cookwares made from aluminum (Al) are supposed to be a potential source of Al contamination of food. In this study, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects of water boiled in aluminum cookwares on the dividing cells of onion root tip were examined using Allium cepa assay. Three used aluminum cookwares from different sources were selected. Distilled water was gently boiled in each pot and then used for growing onions. The cells of root tip were analyzed for mitotic and phase indexes as well as aberrations appeared in the interphase and mitotic phase. One way analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey HSD test were applied for comparison between experimental groups. The results showed that the mitotic index in one of the treated groups increased significantly compared to the control. Also the frequency of prophase in two of treated groups increased significantly compared to that of the control. There was a borderline significant increase in the frequency average of total aberrations from three treated groups compared to that of the control (p value = 0.063). Also, a significant increase was observed in the frequency average of disturbed mitosis from three treated groups compared to that of the control (p value = 0.04). The findings of this preliminary study supported a possible health hazard of aluminum cookwares. Further investigation with larger sample and food with various compositions is needed to reach a full conclusion about the health effect of aluminum cookwares.

Keywords

Allium cepa assay Aluminum cookware Mitotic index Chromosome aberration 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author would like to thank Dr. Maryam Ansari-Lari for her critical reading of the manuscript and valuable contribution in the data analysis. This study was supported by Shiraz University.

Authors’ contributions

Zahra Zendehboodi was responsible for study concept and design, collection, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting and revising the manuscript and approving the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

No conflicts of interests are declared by the author.

References

  1. 1.
    Valadez-Vega C, Zúñiga-Pérez C, Quintanar-Gómez S, Morales-González JA, MadrigalSantillán E, Villagómez-Ibarra JR, et al. Lead, cadmium and cobalt (Pb, cd, and co) leaching of glass-clay containers by pH effect of food. Int J Mol Sci. 2011;12:2336–50.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12042336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Weidenhamer JD, Kobunski PA, Kuepouo G, Corbin RW, Gottesfeld P. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon. Sci Total Environ. 2014;496:339–47.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.07.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Papanikolaou NC, Hatzidaki EG, Belivanis S, Tzanakakis GN, Tsatsakis AM. Lead toxicity update. A brief review. Med Sci Monit. 2005;11:RA329–36.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jaishankar M, Tseten T, Anbalagan N, Mathew BB, Beeregowda KN. Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdiscip Toxicol. 2014;7:60–72.  https://doi.org/10.2478/intox-2014-0009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kawahara M, Konoha K, Nagata T, Sadakane Y. Aluminum and human health : its intake, bioavailability and neurotoxicity. Biomed Res Trace Elem. 2007;18:211–20.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aguilar F, Autrup H, Barlow S, Castle L, Crebelli R, Dekant W, et al. Safety of aluminium from dietary intake - scientific opinion of the panel on food additives, Flavourings, processing aids and food contact materials (AFC). EFSA J. 2008;6:1–34.  https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2008.754.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Malluche HH. Aluminium and bone disease in chronic renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2002;17:21–4.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/17.suppl_2.21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stahl T, Falk S, Rohrbeck A, Georgii S, Herzog C, Wiegand A, et al. Migration of aluminum from food contact materials to food-a health risk for consumers? Part III of III: migration of aluminum to food from camping dishes and utensils made of aluminum. Environ Sci Eur. 2017;29:17.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12302-017-0117-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Radi M, Amiri S. Evaluation of aluminum migration into foodstuffs from aluminium cookware. Journal of Food Hygiene. 2014;4:57–95.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Turhan S. Aluminium contents in baked meats wrapped in aluminium foil. Meat Sci. 2006;74:644–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.03.031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bassioni G, Mohammed FS, Al Zubaidy E, Kobrsi I. Risk assessment of using aluminum foil in food preparation. Int J Electrochem Sci. 2012;7:4498–509.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Al Zubaidy EA, Mohammad F, Bassioni G. Effect of pH, salinity and temperature on aluminum cookware leaching during food preparation. Int J Electrochem Sci. 2011;6:6424–41.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Semwal AD, Padmashree A, Khan MA, Sharma GK, Bawa AS. Leaching of aluminum from utensils during cooking of food. J Sci Food Agric. 2006;86:2425–30.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Leme DM, Marin-Morales MA. Allium cepa test in environmental monitoring: a review on its application. Mutat Res. 2009;682:71–81.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrrev.2009.06.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mangalampalli B, Dumala N, Grover P. Allium cepa root tip assay in assessment of toxicity of magnesium oxide nanoparticles and microparticles. J Environ Sci (China). 2018;66:125–37.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2017.05.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Eleftheriou EP, Adamakis ID, Melissa P. Effects of hexavalent chromium on microtubule organization, ER distribution and callose deposition in root tip cells of Allium cepa L. Protoplasma. 2012;249:401–16.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00709-011-0292-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yao XL, Jenkins EC, Wisniewski HM. Effect of aluminum chloride on mitogenesis, mitosis, and cell cycle in human short-term whole blood cultures: lower concentrations enhance mitosis. J Cell Biochem. 1994;54:473–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nagaonkar D, Shende S, Rai M. Biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles and its effect on actively dividing cells of mitosis in Allium cepa. Biotechnol Prog. 2015;31:557–65.  https://doi.org/10.1002/btpr.2040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jaskowiak J, Tkaczyk O, Slota M, Kwasniewska J, Szarejko I. Analysis of aluminum toxicity in Hordeum vulgare roots with an emphasis on DNA integrity and cell cycle. PLoS One. 2018;13:e0193156.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0193156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Li M, Qin R, Jiang W, Liu D. Cytogenetical effects of aluminum on root meristem cells of Helianthus annuus L. Bot Sci. 2015;93:15–22.  https://doi.org/10.17129/botsci.230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nielsen FH. Ultratrace elements in nutrition: current knowledge and speculation. J Trace Elem Exp Med. 1998;11:251–74.  https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-670X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lankoff A, Banasik A, Duma A, Ochniak E, Lisowska H, Kuszewski T, et al. A comet assay study reveals that aluminium induces DNA damage and inhibits the repair of radiation-induced lesions in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Toxicol Lett. 2006;161:27–36.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2005.07.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Banasik A, Lankoff A, Piskulak A, Adamowska K, Lisowska H, Wojcik A. Aluminuminduced micronuclei and apoptosis in human peripheral-blood lymphocytes treated during different phases of the cell cycle. Environ Toxicol. 2005;20:402–6.  https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.20125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    García-Medina S, Razo-Estrada C, Galar-Martinez M, Cortéz-Barberena E, GómezOliván LM, Alvarez-González I, et al. Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects induced by aluminum in the lymphocytes of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011;153:113–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2010.09.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rajeshwari A, Kavitha S, Alex SA, Kumar D, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N, et al. Cytotoxicity of aluminum oxide nanoparticles on Allium cepa root tip-- effects of oxidative stress generation and biouptake. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2015;22:11057–66.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4355-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology, College of SciencesShiraz UniversityShirazIran

Personalised recommendations