Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects of water boiled in aluminum vessels on Allium cepa root tip cells
- 5 Downloads
Cookwares made from aluminum (Al) are supposed to be a potential source of Al contamination of food. In this study, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects of water boiled in aluminum cookwares on the dividing cells of onion root tip were examined using Allium cepa assay. Three used aluminum cookwares from different sources were selected. Distilled water was gently boiled in each pot and then used for growing onions. The cells of root tip were analyzed for mitotic and phase indexes as well as aberrations appeared in the interphase and mitotic phase. One way analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey HSD test were applied for comparison between experimental groups. The results showed that the mitotic index in one of the treated groups increased significantly compared to the control. Also the frequency of prophase in two of treated groups increased significantly compared to that of the control. There was a borderline significant increase in the frequency average of total aberrations from three treated groups compared to that of the control (p value = 0.063). Also, a significant increase was observed in the frequency average of disturbed mitosis from three treated groups compared to that of the control (p value = 0.04). The findings of this preliminary study supported a possible health hazard of aluminum cookwares. Further investigation with larger sample and food with various compositions is needed to reach a full conclusion about the health effect of aluminum cookwares.
KeywordsAllium cepa assay Aluminum cookware Mitotic index Chromosome aberration
The author would like to thank Dr. Maryam Ansari-Lari for her critical reading of the manuscript and valuable contribution in the data analysis. This study was supported by Shiraz University.
Zahra Zendehboodi was responsible for study concept and design, collection, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting and revising the manuscript and approving the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
No conflicts of interests are declared by the author.
- 1.Valadez-Vega C, Zúñiga-Pérez C, Quintanar-Gómez S, Morales-González JA, MadrigalSantillán E, Villagómez-Ibarra JR, et al. Lead, cadmium and cobalt (Pb, cd, and co) leaching of glass-clay containers by pH effect of food. Int J Mol Sci. 2011;12:2336–50. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12042336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 3.Papanikolaou NC, Hatzidaki EG, Belivanis S, Tzanakakis GN, Tsatsakis AM. Lead toxicity update. A brief review. Med Sci Monit. 2005;11:RA329–36.Google Scholar
- 5.Kawahara M, Konoha K, Nagata T, Sadakane Y. Aluminum and human health : its intake, bioavailability and neurotoxicity. Biomed Res Trace Elem. 2007;18:211–20.Google Scholar
- 6.Aguilar F, Autrup H, Barlow S, Castle L, Crebelli R, Dekant W, et al. Safety of aluminium from dietary intake - scientific opinion of the panel on food additives, Flavourings, processing aids and food contact materials (AFC). EFSA J. 2008;6:1–34. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2008.754.Google Scholar
- 8.Stahl T, Falk S, Rohrbeck A, Georgii S, Herzog C, Wiegand A, et al. Migration of aluminum from food contact materials to food-a health risk for consumers? Part III of III: migration of aluminum to food from camping dishes and utensils made of aluminum. Environ Sci Eur. 2017;29:17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12302-017-0117-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Radi M, Amiri S. Evaluation of aluminum migration into foodstuffs from aluminium cookware. Journal of Food Hygiene. 2014;4:57–95.Google Scholar
- 11.Bassioni G, Mohammed FS, Al Zubaidy E, Kobrsi I. Risk assessment of using aluminum foil in food preparation. Int J Electrochem Sci. 2012;7:4498–509.Google Scholar
- 12.Al Zubaidy EA, Mohammad F, Bassioni G. Effect of pH, salinity and temperature on aluminum cookware leaching during food preparation. Int J Electrochem Sci. 2011;6:6424–41.Google Scholar
- 22.Lankoff A, Banasik A, Duma A, Ochniak E, Lisowska H, Kuszewski T, et al. A comet assay study reveals that aluminium induces DNA damage and inhibits the repair of radiation-induced lesions in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Toxicol Lett. 2006;161:27–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2005.07.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 24.García-Medina S, Razo-Estrada C, Galar-Martinez M, Cortéz-Barberena E, GómezOliván LM, Alvarez-González I, et al. Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects induced by aluminum in the lymphocytes of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011;153:113–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2010.09.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 25.Rajeshwari A, Kavitha S, Alex SA, Kumar D, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N, et al. Cytotoxicity of aluminum oxide nanoparticles on Allium cepa root tip-- effects of oxidative stress generation and biouptake. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2015;22:11057–66. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4355-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar