Utilization of dust and ammonia from exhaust gases: new solutions for dryers with different types of fluidized bed
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The article is devoted to the development of new utilization methods of exhaust gases by cleaning them from fine particles, dust and harmful gas components. The basic design solutions, which allow to increase the degree of exhaust gases cleaning, were presented. The effectiveness of design solutions was supported by the results of experimental studies. Analysis of the research results allowed developing of new designs of equipment for dehydration in fluidized bed. The article also presents the calculation algorithm of eco-friendly dryers with fluidized bed.
Physical modeling was based on methods of similarity theory. In studies in dryers experimental models the installation scale was changed (compared with industrial conditions). Geometric similarity was maintained by equity of constants and invariants of geometric similarity. Always similarity of respective particles movement and their trajectories in industrial design and in experimental models was also maintained. The creation of graphical dependences was carried out by differential methods of mathematical analysis and integral calculus. The reliability of obtained experiment results was caused by the application of time-tested in practice methods.
Results and discussion
Control of product fractional composition allowed to make a selection of required fractions (including the fine granules) in a certain place of device. This allowed to increase the degree of purification of exhaust gas even before it output from the dryer working space. The process of separating the granules into fractions and the selection of fine fraction can be performed due to structural changes in dryer units and selection of optimal hydrodynamic conditions of fluidizing agent motion. Installation of special units in the dryers allowed to extract other contaminants from the exhaust gases.
Proposed constructive solutions for fluidized bed dryers allowed to:
- provided of granules classification to the desired number of fractions with a simultaneous release and discharged of fine fraction from the working volume of dryer without the exhaust gases;
- increased the degree of monodispersity of commodity granules on 25–35%;
- reduced the amount of dust in the exhaust gases on 35–65%;
- reduced the ammonia content in the exhaust gas on 90–95%.
KeywordsDust Ammonia Exhaust gases Utilization Fluidized bed Multi-stage shelf dryer Vortex granulator-dryer
The authors thank researchers of department Processes and Equipment of Chemical and Petroleum Refinery Department, Sumy State University, for their valuable comments during the article preparation.
NA created the background of research, carried out experimental study, summarized the results of the work, participated in drafting of manuscript and preparation of critical version. AA created the methods and methodology of experimental study and carried out the experimental research. All Authors have read the manuscript and have agreed to submit it in its current form for consideration for publication. All read and approved the final manuscript.
This study was carried out under the project «Improving the efficiency of granulators and dryers with active hydrodynamic regimes for obtaining, modification and encapsulation of fertilizers», state registration No. 0116 U006812.
Compliance with ethical standards
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Consent for publication
Ethics approval and consent to participate
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