Chemical composition of PM10 and its effect on in vitro hemolysis of human red blood cells (RBCs): a comparison study during dust storm and inversion
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This study aimed to investigate chemical composition of PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm) during dust storm and inversion in Tehran and hemolysis effects.
PM10 was sampled in Tehran, Iran, during dust storm and inversion conditions. Water soluble ions (F¯, Cl¯, NO2¯, NO3¯, SO4¯2, Na+, K+, NH4+, Ca+2, Mg+2) and elements (Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, V, Zn, Pt, Rh, Pd, As and Si) were analyzed by ion chromatograph (IC) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), respectively. Hemolysis was examined as in vitro at PM10 concentrations of 50–300 μg/ml.
Daily average of PM10 concentrations in dusty and inversion days were 348.40 and 220.54 μg/m3, respectively. Most prevalence ionic components were NO3¯, Cl¯, SO4¯2 and Ca+2 during dust storm and SO4¯2, NO3¯, Cl¯ and NH4+ during inversion. Si, Fe and Al had the maximum values in both conditions. Particles associated with both conditions induced hemolytic responses. PM10 from dusty day showed a higher hemolysis percent (10.24 ± 4.67%) than inversion (9.08 ± 5.47%), but this difference was not significant (p = 0.32). Hemolytic effects were significantly intensified by increased PM concentrations (p < 0.001) in a dose-response manner.
As the results, chemical composition of sampled particles from inversion days and dust storm was different from each other. Hemolytic effects of particles during dust storm were more than inversion days. However, this difference was not statistically significant.
KeywordsAir pollution Middle eastern dust (MED) Toxicological studies Hemoglobin Water soluble ions Elemental component
This work was funded by the Institute for Environmental Research (IER) of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) (grant number 95-03-46-32844) and Iran National Science Foundation (INSF) (grant number 95831261). The authors would like to thank the IER and INSF for financially supports. Also, they are grateful to the Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Institute (IAARI) for technically support and staff collaboration. Current study was approved by the ethics committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (code: IR.TUMS.SPH.REC.1395.841).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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