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Temporal and spatial variations of deposition and elemental composition of dust fall and its source identification around Tabriz, Iran

  • Mehran Eivazzadeh
  • Adeleh Yadeghari
  • Akbar GholampourEmail author
Research Article
  • 23 Downloads

Abstract

Coarse particles are primarily deposited via sedimentation, commonly referred as dust fall (DF). This study presented the monthly and spatial variations of atmospheric DF and their elemental components (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, Ti, V, Si, and Hg). Dust samples were collected from four urban and suburban sampling sites around Tabriz, Iran, by using the ASTM method D-1739 during April to September 2017. Moreover, the ICP-OES was used to determine metal components of the DF. The obtained results showed that the DF amount ranged between 1.8–27.6 (7.4 ± 5.6) g/m2.month. The elements of Fe (11863–13,906 mg/Kg and 85%–89%), Al (858–1205 mg/Kg and 4%–8%), and Si (274–386 mg/Kg) were the dominant elemental concentrations of the DF. The average value of enrichment factor (EF) for Hg, Pb, Cu, Sr, Co, Ni, Mn, and V was greater than 10 in all the samples, showing that anthropogenic sources emit a considerable amount of elements in DF rather than the soil or Urmia lake bed. The result of correlations between the concentration of dust fall with humidity, temperature, wind speed, and precipitation showed that there was a direct relationship between the amount of dust fall and wind speed while humidity, precipitation, and temperature were inversely proportional to the amount of dust fall. This study revealed that earth crust and anthropogenic activities such as vehicle traffic, combustion of fossil fuel, and different industrial activities were the main sources of the DF in the studied areas.

Keywords

Dust fall Elemental composition Crustal enrichment factor Principal component analysis Tabriz 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge the Environmental protection office of East Azerbaijan Province and Tabriz University of Medical Sciences for providing us with sampling locations. The authors would also like to acknowledge the East Azerbaijan Meteorological Organization for providing metrological data. This work was funded by Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (grant number 58337) under the ethics code of IR.TBZMED.REC.1396.409.

Authors’ contributions

All the authors contributed to the design, review and revision of the study, and approved the final version of the paper.

Compliance with ethical standards

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interest with respect to the publication and authorship of this paper.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Health and Environment Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  3. 3.Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of ChemistryUniversity of TabrizTabrizIran

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