Anti-hyperglycemic and ameliorative effect of concentrated hot water-infusion of Phragmanthera incana leaves on type 2 diabetes and indices of complications in diabetic rats

  • Olakunle Sanni
  • Ochuko L. Erukainure
  • Olajumoke Oyebode
  • Md. Shahidul IslamEmail author
Research article



This study investigated the anti-hyperglycemic effects of concentrated hot water infusion of Phragmanthra incana leaves as well as its ameliorative effect on indices related to diabetic complications in a type 2 diabetes model of rats.


Type 2 diabetes was induced by feeding 10% fructose solution ad libitum for two weeks followed by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)). Concentrated plant infusion was administered orally at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg b.w. to two type 2 diabetes rat groups. Diabetic rats without treatment served as a negative control while the group administered with metformin was served as a positive control. The intervention lasted for 4 weeks when a single oral dose was given daily for 5 days a week. Body weight and blood glucose were determined every week. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed in the last week of treatment. The rats were sacrificed after 4 weeks of intervention, and the blood and organs were harvested for further analysis.


Both dosages of the plant infusion significantly improved body weight, pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA-β), insulin secretion and reduced blood glucose, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with concomitant reduction in the elevated level of serum α-amylase activity, fructosamine, uric acid, urea, and liver function enzymes. The liver glycogen content was significantly improved while the activity of liver glucose-6-phosphatase was significantly reduced.


The results demonstrate the anti-hyperglycemic ability of P. incana and its ability to delay the onset of diabetic complications which can be exploited for the anti-diabetic drug discovery.


Phragmanthra incana Antihyperglycemic Type 2 diabetes Glucose homeostasis 



This study was supported by a Competitive Research Grant from the Research Office of the University of KwaZulu-Nata, Durban; and Grant Support for Women and Young Researchers from the National Research Foundation (NRF), Pretoria, South Africa. First author received a Doctoral study scholarship from NRF as well.

Compliance with ethical standards

This study was conducted according to the rules and regulations of the Animal Research Ethics Committee of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Conflict of interest

The authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, School of Life SciencesUniversity of Kwazulu-Natal (Westville Campus)DurbanSouth Africa
  2. 2.Nutrition and Toxicology DivisionFederal Institute of Industrial ResearchLagosNigeria
  3. 3.Department of PharmacologyUniversity of the Free StateBloemfonteinSouth Africa

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