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Anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin D and resistance training in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus and vitamin D deficiency: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial

Abstract

Objectives

The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin D and resistance training in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus and vitamin D deficiency.

Design

This study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial.

Trial registration code: IRCT20190204042621N1

Participants

Forty-eight patients with type 2 diabetes aged 40–65 (from a total of 52 volunteers in Ardabil diabetes clinic) were randomly assigned to either the vitamin D supplementation with resistance training group (VD + RT: n = 12), the resistance training group (RT: n = 12), the vitamin D supplementation group (VD: n = 12), or the control group (CON: n = 12).

Intervention

The subjects in VD group took vitamin D supplements at 50000 IU per 2 weeks for 3 months; the subjects in RT group exercised 3 times per week for 12 weeks; and the subjects in VD + RT group participated in both treatments. Subjects in CON group were asked to maintain normal daily life pattern for the duration of the study.

Measurements

Serum Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were determined at pre and post-test and the data were compared among the four groups and between two tests (4 × 2) using two-way ANOVA with repeated measures.

Results

IL-6 decreased significantly (P = 0.001) in all groups (VD + RT = % -71.73, RT = % -65.85, VD = % -61.70). TNF-α decreased significantly (P = 0.001) in VD + RT (% -44.90) and RT (% -40) groups. CRP showed no significant change in any group (P > 0.05).

Conclusion

Results demonstrated that vitamin D supplementation in addition to resistance training had positive effects on some inflammatory markers in T2D and vitamin D deficient men. Vitamin D supplementation was especially effective when it was complemented with exercise training.

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Acknowledgements

We would like to express gratitude to Dr. Mohammad Zaefizadeh, Dr. Ahad Jafari, Dr. Nasser Shokri, Ardabil Islamic Azad University for their excellent helps in conducting the present study and Sanandaj Islamic Azad University for Funding the study. This study was performed with the approval of the Faculty of Medical Sciences of Ardabil Azad University.

Funding/support

Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University.

Author information

All authors equally contributed to the writing and revision of this paper.

Correspondence to Khalid Mohamadzadeh Salamat.

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Dadrass, A., Mohamadzadeh Salamat, K., Hamidi, K. et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin D and resistance training in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus and vitamin D deficiency: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Diabetes Metab Disord 18, 323–331 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40200-019-00416-z

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Keywords

  • Inflammation
  • Resistance training
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • Vitamin D