The interaction of dyslipidaemia with glycaemia in an adult population study

  • Sarah Cuschieri
  • Josanne Vassallo
  • Neville Calleja
  • Christopher Barbara
  • Julian Mamo
Research Article



Individuals with dysglycaemic are prone to dyslipidaemia. Understanding the dyslipidaemic status of dysglycaemic individuals is essential for monitoring and early prevention. The aim was to assess the control of lipidaemia by glycaemic status in a representative adult population.


A retrospective health examination survey was performed on a sample of adults (n = 3947) in Malta in 2014–6. Sociodemographic data, biochemistry blood tests and anthropometric measurements were gathered. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the lipidaemic status and its control across the glycaemic spectrum (normoglycemic, impaired fasting glucose individuals, new diabetics and known diabetics).


The prevalence of uncontrolled dyslipidaemia was 7.75% (CI 95%: 6.69–8.63), among whom 6.97% (CI 95%: 6.21–7.81) were naïve dyslipidaemic. A progressive elevation in both LDL-C and total cholesterol but not triglycerides was present among uncontrolled dyslipidaemia individuals across the glycaemic spectrum. Global dyslipidaemia was present in 19.26% (CI 95%: 18.05–20.52) of the total general population and in 46.59% (CI 95%: 40.49–52.69%) of known diabetics. Most individuals irrespective of lipid status were normoglycaemic.


Dyslipidaemia occurs in the presence of insulin resistance. Dyslipidaemia predominated in the normoglycaemic state irrespective of statins use, indicating the need to manage dyslipidaemia prior to dysglycaemia.


Hyperlipidaemia Diabetes mellitus, type 2 Insulin resistance, policy Epidemiology Malta 



The in-kind support and encouragement of the Parliamentary Secretariat for Health of the Government of Malta is gratefully acknowledged.

Funding source

The authors are extremely grateful for the strong financial support from the University of Malta (through the Medical School and Research Innovative Development Trust department) and from the Alfred Mizzi Foundation as major sponsors, as well as others, including Atlas Health Insurance (Malta). None of the funding sources had any role in the research design, the data collection, the analysis and interpretation of the data or in the preparation of the article.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interests

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Biomedical BuildingUniversity of MaltaMsidaMalta
  2. 2.Faculty of Medicine and SurgeryUniversity of MaltaMsidaMalta
  3. 3.Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and SurgeryUniversity of MaltaMsidaMalta
  4. 4.Department of Health Information and ResearchMinistry of HealthGwardamangiaMalta
  5. 5.Pathology DepartmentMater Dei HospitalMsidaMalta

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