Diets along with interval training regimes improves inflammatory & anti-inflammatory condition in obesity with type 2 diabetes subjects

  • Mahmoud Asle Mohammadi Zadeh
  • Mehdi KargarfardEmail author
  • Syed Mohamad Marandi
  • Abdolhamid Habibi
Research Article



Different physical activities and diets change the regulation of inflammations in both type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients and obese individuals, but the effect of both (Physical activity and diet) on pro/anti-inflammations has remained unknown. We investigated pro/anti-inflammations control, cardiovascular function, and total physiological parameters before and after 24 weeks of low volume high intensity interval training (HIIT) on a cycle ergometer along with four dietary regimes in obesity with T2D patients.


33 non-active obesity T2D patients (BMI ≥ 30) midges (47 yrs. ± 5) were volunteered to participate and randomly divided into three experimental(n = 11) [(1) LCD = low Carbohydrate Diet, (2) LFD = Low Fat Diet and (3) HFD = High Fat Diet)] and one control (n = 9) [ND = normal diet] groups. The whole groups performed underwent 8-week dietary regimes and then performed 3 days/weeks (3 set 10 × 60 s) HIIT on a cycle ergometer for 12 weeks, which followed by a 4-week diet period again. Also, prior to and after 8 weeks diet-12 weeks High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) and 4 weeks diet 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), resting blood pressure, incremental maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak) cycle ergometer test and blood sample was collected from the subjects in order to measure pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, leptin, resistin, adiponectin, and FGF21).


After 24 weeks of intervention, the results indicated that the highest improvement in the percentage of changes in glucose happened in LCD (−34.76), insulin in ND (+16.43), cholesterol in LCD (−33.35), LDL in LFD (−9.14), HDL in LCD (+41.81), TG in LCD (−40.71), weight in LCD (−12.49) and HOMA-IR in HFD (−6.82). The results also indicated that after 24 weeks of HIIT and diet interventions, highest benefit percentage change IL-6, resistin and leptin occurred in LCD (−32.10, −28.29 and − 53.92, respectively), TNF-α, FGF21 and adiponectin in LFD (−48.06, +55.30 and + 42.32, respectively). However, these changes were observed in other groups.


These results demonstrated that HIIT along with low carbohydrate regimes improves overall cardiovascular parameters and reduce pro-inflammatory markers and increase anti-inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetic patients. Additionally, as with HIIT along with low carbohydrate, HIIT coupled with low fat would improve inflammation markers, though these effects were less significant. These findings suggest that HIIT along with low carbohydrate is a beneficial exercise and dietary strategy in T2D patients.


Pro/anti- inflammatory T2D patients Obesity Adipokines HIIT 



High Intensity Interval Training


Low Carbohydrate Diet


Low Fat Diet


High Fat Diet


Fibroblast growth factor 21


type 2 diabetic


Normal Diet


oral glucose tolerance test



We highly appreciate Professors Mehdi kargarfard and Syed Mohamad Marandi for their great support with data collection. Further, we feel obliged to thank the patients who participated in this study.


This study was supported by the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Isfahan University, Iran.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest associated with this manuscript.

Ethical standards

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of Ethics Committee in College of Medicine, Isfahan University, Iran as well as with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Approval of the study was issued by the Ethics Committee at College of Medicine, Isfahan University, Iran.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants taking part in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahmoud Asle Mohammadi Zadeh
    • 1
  • Mehdi Kargarfard
    • 1
    Email author
  • Syed Mohamad Marandi
    • 1
  • Abdolhamid Habibi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport SciencesUniversity of IsfahanIsfahanIran
  2. 2.Department of Physical Education and Sport SciencesShahid Chamran UniversityAhwazIran

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