Association of eNOS and ACE gene polymorphisms as a genetic risk factor in gestational diabetes in Iranian women

  • Mani MirfeiziEmail author
  • Mandana Hasanzad
  • Mahshid Sattari
  • Mahdi Afshari
  • Davood Abbasi
  • Zarin Ajoodani
  • Ali Bani Sheykheslam
Research Article



Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most popular metabolic disease during pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to investigate any possible association between eNOS Glu298Asp and ACE I/D gene polymorphisms and the risk of GDM in a group of Iranian pregnant women.


In this case-control study 204 pregnant women were recruited (94 cases and 110 controls). Genomic DNA was isolated from whole blood and genotyping was performed by the Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR- RFLP) and only PCR for eNOS and ACE polymorphisms respectively.


Frequencies of GT and TT genotype of eNOS polymorphism among women with and without GDM were 67.90% vs. 74.47 and 7.41% vs. 8.51% respectively (P = 0.4). Corresponding figures for DD genotype of ACE polymorphism among GDM patients was more than that in healthy women (51.65% vs. 63.81% respectively). Conversely, ACE heterozygote genotype was more common in diabetic women (35.16% vs. 26.67% respectively). Although these differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.2).


Our study showed that there is no association between the presence of eNOS and ACE gene polymorphisms and developing gestational diabetes mellitus among pregnant women in our population. Further longitudinal and multicenter studies should be carried out to assess the exact metabolic effects of these polymorphisms.


Gestational diabetes Polymorphism eNOS Angiotensin I converting enzyme 



Type 2 Diabetes


Gestational Diabetes Mellitus


endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase


Angiotensin Converting Enzyme


Oral Glucose Challenge Test


Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus


Body Mass Index


American Diabetes Association





The authors acknowledge the contribution of the subjects in this study. The authors would like to thank all gestational diabetic patients who involved in this survey. And this study was supported by Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Alborz, Iran.

Authors’ contributions

MM: conceived and designed the present study and gave final approval and critically revised the manuscript; MH: designed the Genetic study; MS: technical Genetic laboratory; MA: Statistical analysis; DA: sample collection & clinical study; ZA: sample collection; ZB: sample collection; AB: sample collection.


This study was supporting by Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Alborz, Iran.

Compliance with ethical standards

Competing interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Consent for publication

Oral and written consent were obtained from the patients.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mani Mirfeizi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mandana Hasanzad
    • 2
    • 3
  • Mahshid Sattari
    • 2
  • Mahdi Afshari
    • 4
  • Davood Abbasi
    • 5
  • Zarin Ajoodani
    • 1
    • 6
  • Ali Bani Sheykheslam
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Midwifery, College of Nursing & MidwiferyIslamic Azad University, Karaj BranchAlborzIran
  2. 2.Medical Genomics Research CenterIslamic Azad University, Tehran Medical Sciences BranchTehranIran
  3. 3.Personalized Medicine Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Community MedicineZabol University of Medical SciencesZabolIran
  5. 5.Iranian Diabetes Society, Eslamshahr BranchEslamshahrIran
  6. 6.Alborz HospitalAlborzIran
  7. 7.Ghaem HospitalAlborzIran

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