Association of eNOS and ACE gene polymorphisms as a genetic risk factor in gestational diabetes in Iranian women
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most popular metabolic disease during pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to investigate any possible association between eNOS Glu298Asp and ACE I/D gene polymorphisms and the risk of GDM in a group of Iranian pregnant women.
In this case-control study 204 pregnant women were recruited (94 cases and 110 controls). Genomic DNA was isolated from whole blood and genotyping was performed by the Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR- RFLP) and only PCR for eNOS and ACE polymorphisms respectively.
Frequencies of GT and TT genotype of eNOS polymorphism among women with and without GDM were 67.90% vs. 74.47 and 7.41% vs. 8.51% respectively (P = 0.4). Corresponding figures for DD genotype of ACE polymorphism among GDM patients was more than that in healthy women (51.65% vs. 63.81% respectively). Conversely, ACE heterozygote genotype was more common in diabetic women (35.16% vs. 26.67% respectively). Although these differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.2).
Our study showed that there is no association between the presence of eNOS and ACE gene polymorphisms and developing gestational diabetes mellitus among pregnant women in our population. Further longitudinal and multicenter studies should be carried out to assess the exact metabolic effects of these polymorphisms.
KeywordsGestational diabetes Polymorphism eNOS Angiotensin I converting enzyme
Type 2 Diabetes
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme
Oral Glucose Challenge Test
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Body Mass Index
American Diabetes Association
The authors acknowledge the contribution of the subjects in this study. The authors would like to thank all gestational diabetic patients who involved in this survey. And this study was supported by Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Alborz, Iran.
MM: conceived and designed the present study and gave final approval and critically revised the manuscript; MH: designed the Genetic study; MS: technical Genetic laboratory; MA: Statistical analysis; DA: sample collection & clinical study; ZA: sample collection; ZB: sample collection; AB: sample collection.
This study was supporting by Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Alborz, Iran.
Compliance with ethical standards
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
Consent for publication
Oral and written consent were obtained from the patients.
- 2.Zhang Y, Sun C-M, Hu X-Q, Zhao Y. Relationship between melatonin receptor 1B and insulin receptor substrate 1 polymorphisms with gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep 2014;4:6113.Google Scholar
- 3.Kamana K, Shakya S, Zhang H. Gestational diabetes mellitus and macrosomia: a literature review. Ann Nutr Metab. 2015;66(Suppl. 2):14–20.Google Scholar
- 20.Haijuan H, Fan Z, Meilin Z, Guifen C, Haiyun H, Pinff H. Relationship between endothelial nitric oxide synthase Glu298Asp gene polymorphisms and the chronic periodontitis with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2012;30(6):628–31.Google Scholar
- 21.Atay AE, Akbas H, Tumer C, Sakar MN, Esen B, Incebiyik A, et al. The association of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene G894T polymorphism and serum nitric oxide concentration with microalbuminuria in patients with gestational diabetes. Clin Nephrol. 2014;81(2):105–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 25.Liyun L, Songbiao L, Chengshan W, Xiufang L. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of echocardiographic studies. International Journal of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease. 2016;4(3):27–34.Google Scholar