Prevalence of diabetic nephropathy among Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and different categories of their estimated glomerular filtration rate based on the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation in primary care in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional study

  • Ka Yee MokEmail author
  • Pang Fai Chan
  • Loretta K. P. Lai
  • Kai Lim Chow
  • David V. K. Chao
Research Article



To evaluate the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and different categories of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as calculated by the CKD-EPI equation among Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes in primary care in Hong Kong. The associated factors of diabetic nephropathy were also analyzed.


A cross-sectional study was conducted in 35,109 Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes followed up in all General Outpatient Clinics in a Hospital Authority cluster and had undergone comprehensive diabetic complication assessment from April 2013 to March 2016. The GFR was estimated by the CKD-EPI equation. Logistic regression was used to analyze the associated factors of diabetic nephropathy.


The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy (with either or both albuminuria and impaired eGFR), impaired eGFR (with or without albuminuria) and albuminuria (with or without impaired eGFR) was 31.6%, 16.9% and 22.0% respectively. The prevalence of eGFR categories 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 was 36.0%, 47.1%, 15.7%, 1.1% and 0.1% respectively. The comorbidity with hypertension or presence of other diabetic microvascular or macrovascular complications including diabetic retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, history of stroke and history of ischemic heart disease had strong association with diabetic nephropathy. Obesity, smoking, suboptimal control of blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol were also significantly associated with diabetic nephropathy.


Diabetic nephropathy was common among Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes in primary care in Hong Kong. Early identification and control of the modifiable risk factors are of upmost importance in preventing the complication.


Type 2 diabetes Diabetic nephropathy Glomerular filtration rate Primary care 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Family Medicine and Primary Health Care, United Christian Hospital and Tseung Kwan O Hospital, Kowloon East ClusterHospital AuthorityHong KongChina
  2. 2.Tseung Kwan O Jockey Club General Out-patient ClinicTseung Kwan OHong Kong, China

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