Clinical and economic impacts of clinical pharmacists’ interventions in Iran: a systematic review

  • Afsaneh Noormandi
  • Iman Karimzadeh
  • Mahtabalsadat Mirjalili
  • Hossein KhaliliEmail author
Review Article



There are many studies about Iranian clinical pharmacists’ interventions and their impacts on medication safety and cost. The aim of this study is to collect data and critically evaluate the clinical and economic effects of Iranian clinical pharmacist interventions and activities. To our best of knowledge, this research is the first review of publications about Iranian clinical pharmacists’ interventions and activities.

Evidence acquisition.

Six online databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and Google Scholar were searched using the terms ‘“Iranian”, “clinical pharmacist”, ‘adverse drug reactions”, “medication errors”, “drug interaction”, “drug utilization evaluation”, “cost”, and “interventions” for English studies conducted in Iran and described clinical pharmacist-initiated interventions, published before December 2018. The search and extraction process followed PRISMA guidelines. Observational or retrospective studies, clinical trials, congress abstracts, and case reports or case series were excluded. The search strategy after full-text review identified 39 articles matching the eligibility criteria.


Thirty-nine articles were recruited. They included establishing pharmaceutical care in out-patient clinics and drug information centers (n = 4); prevention, detection, and management of adverse drug reactions(n = 4), designing protocols and improving drug utilization pattern(n = 16), prevention, detection, and management of medication errors (n = 11), and all clinical pharmacist services(n = 4). Most clinical pharmacist interventions and activities were regarding designing protocols, improving drug utilization pattern, as well as detection, prevention, and management of medication errors. About three-fourth (74.35%) of included studies were from either ambulatory care or in-patient settings in Tehran. The median (interquartile range) duration of intervention as well as follow-up phases was 9 (5) months.


Data of our review support the beneficial role of clinical pharmacists in the improvement of quality, safety, and efficiency of patients’ pharmaceutical care in Iran.

Graphical abstract

Clinical pharmacists’ interventions in Iran


Clinical pharmacy Interventions Clinical and economic impacts Iran 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Afsaneh Noormandi
    • 1
  • Iman Karimzadeh
    • 2
  • Mahtabalsadat Mirjalili
    • 2
  • Hossein Khalili
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of PharmacyTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of PharmacyShiraz University of Medical SciencesShirazIran

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