Influence of welding angle on the weld morphology and porosity in laser-arc hybrid welding of AA2219 aluminum alloy

  • Cong Chen
  • Yiping Shen
  • Ming GaoEmail author
  • Xiaoyan Zeng
Research Paper


The influence of welding angle on weld morphologies and porosity characteristics was studied in laser-arc hybrid welding of AA2219 aluminum (Al) alloy. The upward sloping and vertical weld (USVW) was performed better than the downward sloping and vertical weld (DSVW). The high-speed camera was used to observe the welding process. It is found that the welding process becomes stable when the transitional position of the droplet was 2 mm away from the keyhole. By analyzing the force act on keyhole and characteristics of the pool, it is found that the weld morphologies and porosity characteristics were associated with gravity-laser angle (β), which affects the keyhole stability and characteristics of the pool. The results showed that the flow velocity was accelerated when the β increased, which was a benefit for decreasing porosity. This is because the gravity in the direction of the welding accelerates the pool flow. Due to the increasing of the β, the static pressure and the vapor pressure in the keyhole were increased, which improved the stability of the keyhole and decreased the porosity.


Laser-arc hybrid welding Aluminum alloy Keyhole Weld morphology Porosity 


Funding information

This work is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China with grant nos. 51805182 and 51429501, and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation funded project with grant no. 2018 M642828.


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Copyright information

© International Institute of Welding 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cong Chen
    • 1
  • Yiping Shen
    • 2
  • Ming Gao
    • 1
    Email author
  • Xiaoyan Zeng
    • 1
  1. 1.Wuhan National Laboratory for OptoelectronicsHuazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Shanghai Spaceflight Precision Machinery InstituteShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China

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