Advertisement

Welding in the World

, Volume 63, Issue 1, pp 75–86 | Cite as

Effect of hydrogen on the fracture toughness of X65 high-frequency welded pipeline

  • L. Y. Xu
  • Z. Y. Kang
  • Y. D. HanEmail author
  • L. Zhao
  • H. Y. Jing
  • W. F. Zhu
Research Paper
  • 71 Downloads

Abstract

The effect of hydrogen on the fracture toughness of X65 high-frequency welded (HFW) pipelines was investigated both in a hydrogen environment and in air. The hydrogen environment was created by in situ hydrogen charging, using a simulated soil solution as the electrolyte. Four current densities were used, namely 1, 2, 4, and 8 mA/cm2. The fracture toughness was characterized by the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD). The CTOD values of the base metal and weld metal decreased with increasing hydrogen charging current density, and a higher reduction was seen in the weld metal. In addition, the hydrogen permeation and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) measurements were also applied to the base metal and weld metal to evaluate the hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) susceptibility. The results showed that the weld metal had a higher HIC susceptibility than that of the base metal.

Keywords

High-frequency welded Crack tip opening displacement Hydrogen permeation Electron backscattered diffraction Hydrogen-induced cracking Fracture toughness 

Notes

Funding information

The authors thank the research funding by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51575382) and Demonstration Project of National Marine Economic Innovation (BHSF2017-22).

References

  1. 1.
    Al-Jaroudi SS, Ul-Hamid A, Al-Gahtani MM (2011) Failure of crude oil pipeline due to microbiologically induced corrosion. Corros Eng Sci Technol 46:568–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Corbett KT, Bowen RR, Petersen CW (2004) High-strength steel pipeline economics. Int J Offshore Polar 14:75–80Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Forero AB, Ponciano JAC, Bott IS (2014) Susceptibility of pipeline girth welds to hydrogen embrittlement and sulphide stress cracking. Mat Corros 65:531–541Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Capelle J, Dmytrakh I, Pluvinage G (2010) Comparative assessment of electrochemical hydrogen absorption by pipeline steels with different strength. Corros Sci 52:1554–1559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Capelle J, Gilgert J, Dmytrakh I, Pluvinage G (2008) Sensitivity of pipelines with steel API X52 to hydrogen embrittlement. Int J Hydrog Energy 33:7630–7641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Xue HB, Cheng YF (2011) Characterization of inclusions of X80 pipeline steel and its correlation with hydrogen-induced cracking. Corros Sci 53:1201–1208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Alvaro A, Olden V, Macadre A, Akselsen OM (2014) Hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of a weld simulated X70 heat affected zone under H-2 pressure. Mat Sci Eng A-struct 597:29–36Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Capelle J, Dmytrakh I, Azari Z, Pluvinage G (2013) Evaluation of electrochemical hydrogen absorption in welded pipe with steel API X52. Int J Hydrog Energy 38:14356–14363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wang R (2009) Effects of hydrogen on the fracture toughness of a X70 pipeline steel. Corros Sci 51:2803–2810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tamura M, Noma M, Yamashita M (2014) Characteristic change of hydrogen permeation in stainless steel plate by BN coating. Surf Coat Technol 260:148–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chatzidouros EV, Papazoglou VJ, Tsiourua TE, Pantelis DI (2011) Hydrogen effect on fracture toughness of pipeline steel welds, with in situ hydrogen charging. Int J Hydrog Energy 36:12626–12643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Han YD, Jing HY, Xu LY (2012) Welding heat input effect on the hydrogen permeation in the X80 steel welded joints. Mater Chem Phys 132:216–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Park GT, Koh SU, Jung HG, Kim KY (2008) Effect of microstructure on the hydrogen trapping efficiency and hydrogen induced cracking of linepipe steel. Corros Sci 50:1865–1871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    BS 7448-1-1991 Fracture mechanics toughness tests part 1: method for determination of KIc, critical CTOD and critical J values of metallic materials. BSI London (1991)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    BS 7448-2-1997 Fracturemechanics toughness tests part 2. Method for determination of KIc, critical CTOD and critical J values of welds in metallic materials. BSI London (1997)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wu T, Yan C, Zeng D, Xu J, Sun C, Yu C et al (2015) Hydrogen permeation of X80 steel with superficial stress in the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Corros Sci 91:86–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    ISO 17081-2004 Method of measurement of hydrogen permeation and determination of hydrogen uptake and transport inmetals by an electrochemical technique. ISO, Switzerland (2004)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ouyang YJ, Yu G, Hu L, Wang XJ, Xu WJ, Zhan YG, Zhang XY (2013) Influence of Ni or Pd coatings on oxidation of permeated hydrogen. Surf Eng 29:312–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kim SJ, Yun DW, Suh DW, Kim KY (2012) Electrochemical hydrogen permeation measurement through TRIP steel under loading condition of phase transition. Electrochem Commun 24:112–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mohtadi-Bonab MA, Szpunar JA, Razavi-Tousi SS (2013) Hydrogen induced cracking susceptibility in different layers of a hot rolled X70 pipeline steel. Int J Hydrog Energy 38:13831–13841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Venegas V, Caleyo F, Baudin T, Hallen JM, Penelle R (2009) Role of microtexture in the interaction and coalescence of hydrogen-induced cracks. Corros Sci 51:1140–1145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Torres-Islas A, Salinas-Bravo VM, Albarran JL, Gonzalez-Rodriguez JG (2005) Effect of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of X-70 pipeline steel in diluted NaHCO3 solutions at different heat treatments. Int J Hydrog Energy 30:1317–1322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Venegas V, Caleyo F, Baudin T, Espina-Hernández JH, Hallen JM (2011) On the role of crystallographic texture in mitigating hydrogen-induced cracking in pipeline steels. Corros Sci 53:4204–4212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Venegas V, Caleyo F, González JL, Baudin T, Hallen JM, Penelle R (2005) EBSD study of hydrogen-induced cracking in API-5L-X46 pipeline steel. Scr Mater 52:147–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yazdipour N, Haq AJ, Muzaka K, Pereloma EV (2012) 2D modelling of the effect of grain size on hydrogen diffusion in X70 steel. Comput Mater Sci 56:49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    He M, Li F, Cai J, Chen B (2011) An indentation technique for estimating the energy density as fracture toughness with Berkovich indenter for ductile bulk materials. Theor Appl Fract Mech 56:104–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mohtadi-Bonab MA, Szpunar JA, Razavi-Tousi SS (2013) A comparative study of hydrogen induced cracking behavior in API 5L X60 and X70 pipeline steels. Eng Fail Anal 33:163–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Institute of Welding 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Y. Xu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Z. Y. Kang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Y. D. Han
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • L. Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
  • H. Y. Jing
    • 1
    • 2
  • W. F. Zhu
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Materials Science and EngineeringTianjin UniversityTianjinChina
  2. 2.Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining TechnologyTianjinChina
  3. 3.Zhongxing Energy Equipment Co., LtdHaimenChina

Personalised recommendations