Advertisement

Welding in the World

, Volume 63, Issue 1, pp 43–51 | Cite as

Formation of multi-axial welding stresses due to material behaviour during fabrication of high-strength steel components

  • Dirk SchroepferEmail author
  • Arne Kromm
  • Thomas Kannengiesser
Research Paper
  • 62 Downloads

Abstract

Today, an expanding application of high-strength steels in modern welded constructions can be observed. The economical use of these steel grades largely depends on the strength and reliability of the weldments. Therefore, the special microstructure and mechanical properties of these grades have to be taken into account by keener working ranges regarding the welding parameters. However, performance and safety of welded components are strongly affected by the stresses occurring during and after welding fabrication locally in the weld seam and globally in the whole component, especially if the shrinkage and distortion due to welding are restrained. Some extensive studies describe the optimization of the welding stresses and the metallurgical effects regarding an adapted welding heat control. Lower working temperatures revealed to be particularly effective to reduce the local and global welding-induced residual stresses of the complete weld significantly. However, decreased interpass temperatures cause concurrently higher stresses during welding fabrication. This work shows strategies to reduce these in-process stresses. With help of multi-axial welding stress analyses in component-related weld tests, using a special 2-MN-testing facility, differences in stress build-up are described in detail for root welds, filler layers and subsequent cooling to ambient temperature.

Keywords

Residual stresses GMA welding Restraint High-strength steels Process parameters 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Sincere thanks are given for the support and to the representing companies actively involved in the project board.

Funding information

The studies were funded by the AiF-project IGF-Nr. 17267 N (FOSTA P922) and 17978 N (FOSTA P1011).

References

  1. 1.
    Hulka K, Kern A, Schriever U (2005) Application of niobium in quenched and tempered high-strength steels. Mater Sci Forum 500–501:519–526.  https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.500-501.519 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lu J (2002) Prestress engineering of structural material: a global design approach to the residual stress problem. In: Totten GE, Howes MAH, Inoue T (eds) Handbook of residual stress and deformation of steel. Materials Park, Ohio: ASM International. pp 11–26Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures (EN 1993), 2010Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schroepfer D (2017) Adaptierte Wärmeführung zur Optimierung schweißbedingter Beanspruchungen und Eigenschaften höherfester Verbindungen. Dissertation, OVGU Magdeburg, ISBN: 978-3-8440-5406-4Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schroepfer D, Flohr K, Kromm A, Kannengiesser T (2017) Multi-axial analyses of welding stresses in high-strength steel welds. In: Mater. Res. Proceedings, Residual Stress. 2016 ICRS-10. Materials research forum, Sydney, pp 205–210Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nitschke-Pagel T, Wohlfahrt H (1991) The generation of residual stresses due to joining processes. In: Hauk V, Hougardy H, Macherauch E (eds) Residual stress. - Meas. Calc. Eval. DGM Informationsgesellschaft mbH, ISBN: 3–88355–169-4, pp 121–133Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boellinghaus T, Kannengiesser T, Neuhaus M (2005) Effects of the structural restraint intensity on the stress strain build up in butt joints. In: Cerjak H, Bhadeshia HKDH (eds) Math. Model. Weld Phenom. TU Graz, pp 651–669Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Satoh K (1977) Restraint stresses/ strains v. cold cracking in RRC test of high strength steel. In: Proceedings, Conf. Residual Stress. Welded Constr. Their Eff. The Welding Institute, London, pp 283–289Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Umekuni A, Masubuchi K (1997) Usefulness of Undermatched weld for high-strength steels. Weld J 76:256–263Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schroepfer D, Kannengiesser T (2016) Stress build-up in HSLA steel welds due to material behaviour. J Mater Process Technol 227:49–58.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2015.08.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Boellinghaus T, Kannengiesser T (2003) Effect of filler material selection and shrinkage restraint on stress strain build up in component welds. In: Proc. 6th Int. Conf. Trends welding, April. 2002, pine Mt. Georg. USA res. Pine Mt. Georg. USA. ASM international, pp 906–911Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Satoh K, Terai K, Yamada S et al (1975) Theoretical study on transient restraint stress in multi-pass welding. Transactions Japan Weld Soc 6:42–52Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kannengiesser T, Schroepfer D (2014) Fosta P922 - Influence of the weld thermal cycle on residual stress evolution and cold cracking resistance in welded high-strength fine-grained structural steel constructions. Final report (IGF 17267 N), ISBN: 978-3-942541-57-2Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kannengiesser T, Schroepfer D (2016) Fosta P1011 - Application of modified spray arc welding to improve welding-specific stressing of high-strength fine-grained structural steel components. Final report (IGF 17978 N), ISBN: 978-3-946885-12-2Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Karlsson L (1986) Thermal stresses in welding. In: Therm. Stress. I. Sole distributors for the U.S.A. and Canada, Elsevier Science Pub. Co: Amsterdam pp 299–389Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schroepfer D, Kromm A, Kannengiesser T (2016) Engineering approach to assess residual stresses in welded components. Weld World 61:91–106.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40194-016-0394-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schroepfer D, Kromm A, Kannengiesser T (2017) Optimization of welding loads using modified spray arc process. Weld World 61:1077–1087.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40194-017-0484-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lausch T (2015) Untersuchungen zum Einfluss der Wärmeführung auf die Rissbildung beim Spannungsarmglühen dickwandiger Bauteile aus 13CrMoV9–10. Dissertation, OvGU MagdeburgGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rhode M, Kromm A, Kannengiesser T (2012) Residual stresses in multi-layer component welds. In: DebRoy T, Koseki T, David SA, et al (eds) Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Trends Weld. Res. June, 2012, Chicago, USA. ASM International, pp 48–54Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kannengiesser T, Lausch T, Kromm A (2011) Effects of heat control on the stress build-up during high-strength steel welding under defined restraint conditions. Weld World 55:58–65.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03321308 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kromm A, Dixneit J, Kannengiesser T (2014) Residual stress engineering by low transformation temperature alloys - state of the art and recent developments. Weld World 58:729–741.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40194-014-0155-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schroepfer D, Kromm A, Kannengiesser T (2015) Improving welding stresses by filler metal and heat control selection in component-related butt joints of high-strength steel. Weld World 59:455–464.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40194-014-0219-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bhadeshia HKDH (2004) Developments in martensitic and bainitic steels: role of the shape deformation. Mater Sci Eng A 378:34–39.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2003.10.328 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Institute of Welding 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und-prüfung (BAM)BerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations