Welding in the World

, Volume 63, Issue 1, pp 11–22 | Cite as

Effects of welding parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of underwater wet friction taper plug welded pipeline steel

  • Junzhen Xiong
  • Xinqi YangEmail author
  • Wei Lin
  • Kaixuan Liu
Research Paper


Microstructure and mechanical properties of underwater wet friction taper plug-welded API X52 pipeline steel with 6500–7500-rpm rotational speed at 30–45-kN axial force have been investigated, and the defect-free friction taper plug-welded joints were obtained. It was found that the microstructure in welded joint was remarkably inhomogeneous and very different from the X52 base metal. The weld region could be divided into forged zone (FZ), final frictional plane (FFP), shear deformation zone (SDZ), bonding zone (BZ), and heat-affected zone (HAZ). The HAZ has the coarsest grain and mainly consists of martensite and bainite, and the FZ and SDZ are mainly characterized by a mixture of martensite, bainite, and various shapes of ferrites. The BZ is represented by the banding pattern of fine equi-axed grain ferrites because of local decarbonization around frictional interface in wet welding condition. The axial force has a greater impact on microstructure of welded joint as compared with rotational speed. The hardness profiles measured on cross section of welded joints are severely non-uniform, ranging from 200 to 400 HV1, due to the inhomogeneity of microstructures. The impact absorbed energy of bonding interface sites in welds was considerably lower than that of base metal (about 20% of parent metal) because of the local obviously coarse grain, Widmanstätten ferrites, and banding ferrite defects. The principle of “close mode” friction welding is illustrated, and the microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of welds can be predicted by judging the type of friction welding.


Friction taper plug welding API X52 pipeline steel Welding parameters Microstructure Mechanical properties 



The authors acknowledge the financial support from National Natural Science Foundation of China (51475327).


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Copyright information

© International Institute of Welding 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Junzhen Xiong
    • 1
  • Xinqi Yang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Wei Lin
    • 1
  • Kaixuan Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, School of Materials Science and EngineeringTianjin UniversityTianjinPeople’s Republic of China

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