Welding in the World

, Volume 63, Issue 1, pp 33–41 | Cite as

Effect of friction spot welding parameters on the joint formation and mechanical properties of Al to Cu

  • Maria E. B. Cardillo
  • Junjun ShenEmail author
  • Nelson G. de Alcântara
  • Conrado R. M. Afonso
  • Jorge F. dos Santos
Research Paper


Friction spot welding is an appealing technique for joining dissimilar materials, such as aluminum and copper that have significant differences in physical and mechanical properties. To optimize the welding process, a full-factorial design was employed. It is found that in addition to the plunge depth, the interaction between the rotational speed and the plunge depth significantly influences the lap-shear strength of the Al/Cu dissimilar joints. Further investigations on macro- and microstructures show that increasing the plunge depth could deform the Cu sheet into a concave shape to form a mechanical interlocking, and thus increase the joint lap-shear strength; increasing the tool rotational speed, however, may compromise this effect because of the formed tunnel defects on the interface due to high thermal exposure.


Friction spot welding (refill friction stir spot welding) Dissimilar Aluminum Copper Microstructures Mechanical properties 


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Copyright information

© International Institute of Welding 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Engineering (DEMa)Federal University of Sao Carlos (UFSCar)São CarlosBrazil
  2. 2.Institute of Materials Research, Materials Mechanics, Solid State Joining Processes (WMP)Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht GmbHGeesthachtGermany

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