Welding in the World

, Volume 62, Issue 5, pp 973–984 | Cite as

Influence of helium content on a ternary-gas-shielded GMAW process

  • Xiaoyu Cai
  • Sanbao LinEmail author
  • Anthony B. Murphy
  • Bolun Dong
  • Chenglei Fan
  • Chunli Yang
Research Paper


Helium was added to the shielding gas for mild-steel gas metal arc welding. The influence of helium content in a ternary shielding gas (Ar–CO2–He) mixture on arc properties, metal transfer process, and weld bead profile was investigated by numerical simulation and experimental study. As the helium content increases, the arc temperature field becomes more constricted but the central high-temperature zone expands. The current density on the arc axis increases with increasing helium content. The heat flux density on the cathode increases as the helium content increases. The changes in the arc properties lead to the changes in the metal transfer. With increasing helium content, the droplet size increases and the transfer frequency decreases, with approximately linear dependence on helium content. When the helium content is increased from 0 to 25 vol%, the droplet diameter increases by about 80% and the transfer frequency decreases by about 77%, compared to the zero-helium case; this is attributed to changes in the forces on the detaching droplets. With the addition of helium, the base metal fusion area increases and has a more rounded profile; this is attributed to the increased droplet diameter and decreased droplet frequency.


GMA welding Helium Shielding gas 


Funding information

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [grant number 51775139] and the National Key Technology R&D Program [grant number 2015BAF01B00].


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Copyright information

© International Institute of Welding 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaoyu Cai
    • 1
  • Sanbao Lin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anthony B. Murphy
    • 2
  • Bolun Dong
    • 1
  • Chenglei Fan
    • 1
  • Chunli Yang
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and JoiningHarbin Institute of TechnologyHarbinChina
  2. 2.CSIRO ManufacturingLindfieldAustralia

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