Welding in the World

, Volume 62, Issue 5, pp 1059–1072 | Cite as

Design methodology for variable shell mould thickness and thermal conductivity additively manufactured

  • T. A. Le NéelEmail author
  • P. Mognol
  • J. Y. Hascoët
Research Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Welding, Additive Manufacturing and Associated NDT


Additive manufacturing (AM) is said to be the fourth industrial revolution disrupting the manufacturing industry. A focus on the foundry industry’s need, more specifically the sand casting process, is done. The usage of additive manufacturing in this field necessitates a different mould design approach. Indeed, it is important to take advantage of AM and the advantages of casting. The fabrication methodology of the mould is binder jetting technique. The almost limitless design possibilities of additive manufacturing are applied to sand moulds for metal casting. A new methodology to optimise the design of sand moulds is proposed. This optimisation reduces the amount of sand to the minimal need, which corresponds to a shell. The shell is then parametrised to have a specific cooling rate. In this case, the cooling speed can vary via a modification of the coefficient of thermal conductivity and shell thickness. The cooling speed is correlated to the dendrite arm spacing, which determines the mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile strength and hardness. Simulations of the cooling support the mould design methodology.


Additive manufacturing Casting Binder jetting Sand mould Optimisation DFAM 


Funding information

The authors would like to thank financial support from l’Agence Nationale de la Recherche (Grant, ANR-15-CE08-0037).


  1. 1.
    Ponche R, Hascoët J, Kerbrat O, Mognol P (2012) A new global approach to design for additive manufacturing. Virtual Phys Prototyp 7(2):93–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pessard E, Mognol P, Hascoët JY, Gerometta C (2008) Complex cast parts with rapid tooling: rapid manufacturing point of view. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 39(9–10):898–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Meisel NA, Williams CB, Druschitz A (2012) Lightweight metal cellular structures via indirect 3D printing and casting. Solid freeform fabrication symposium, pp 162–176Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bendsøe MP, Sigmund O (2004) Topology optimization: theory, methods, and applications. Springer Science & Business Media, 2004Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chhabra M, Singh R (2011) Investigation of optimum shell wall thickness of digitally produced shell moulds for brass casting using ZCast direct metal casting process. MIT Int J Mech Eng 1(2):84–92Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sun SC, Yuan B, Liu MP (2012) Effects of moulding sands and wall thickness on microstructure and mechanical properties of Sr-modified A356 aluminum casting alloy. Trans Nonferrous Metals Soc China (Engl Ed) 22(8):1884–1890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lušić M, Barabanov A, Morina D, Feuerstein F, Hornfeck R (2015) Towards zero waste in additive manufacturing: a case study investigating one pressurised rapid tooling mould to ensure resource efficiency. Procedia CIRP 37:54–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dobrzański LA, Król M, Tański T (2010) Effect of cooling rate and aluminum contents on the Mg-Al-Zn alloys’ structure and mechanical properties. J Achiev Mater Manuf Eng 43(2):613–633Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Akhil KT, Arul S, Sellamuthu R (2014) The effect of section size on cooling rate, microstructure and mechanical properties of A356 aluminium alloy in casting. Procedia Mater Sci 5:362–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dobrzañski LA, Maniara R, Sokolowski JH (2007) The effect of cooling rate on microstructure and mechanical properties of AC AlSi9Cu alloy. Analysis 28(2):105–112Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hascoët JY, Muller P, Mognol P (2011) Manufacturing of complex parts with continuous functionally graded materials (FGM), solid freeform fabrication symposium, pp 557–569Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Meteyer S, Xu X, Perry N, Zhao YF (2014) Energy and material flow analysis of binder-jetting additive manufacturing processes. Procedia CIRP 15:19–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dalquist S, Gutowski T (2004) Life cycle analysis of conventional manufacturing techniques: sand casting. In: 2004 ASME international mechanical engineering congress and expositionGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Institute of Welding 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centrale Nantes, UMR CNRS 6183Nantes cedex 3France

Personalised recommendations