Welding in the World

, Volume 59, Issue 1, pp 77–89 | Cite as

Investigation on heat-affected zone hydrogen-induced cracking of high-strength naval steels using the Granjon implant test

HENRY GRANJON PRIZE 2014 Winner Category B: Materials Behaviour and Weldability
Research Paper


The implant test was used to study the heat-affected zone (HAZ) hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) susceptibility of a recently developed blast-resistant steel BlastAlloy 160 (BA-160) and two existing naval steels, HY-100 and HSLA-100. It was found that the coarse-grained HAZ (CGHAZ) is the most susceptible to HIC in the entire HAZ. Therefore, phase transformation behavior in the CGHAZ was investigated and continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams for the CGHAZ of the three steels were developed. The new BA-160 steel was compared with the current steels HY-100 and HSLA-100 with respect to inherent resistance to HIC and sensitivity to diffusible hydrogen level based on the implant test results. Fracture surfaces of the implant specimens were also studied, which supports the implant test results when comparing the three steels. Different performance of the three steels is a result of the formation of different microstructures in the CGHAZ. In addition, the effect of welding parameters on reducing HIC tendency of BA-160 was studied using the implant test, providing recommendations for welding BA-160 when HIC is a big concern.


Heat-affected zone Transformation Hydrogen Embrittlement Implant tests Fractography High-strength steels 



The author gratefully acknowledges the financial support of the Office of Naval Research, Award No. N000140811000. Grant Officers: Dr. Julie Christodoulou and Dr. William Mullins. The author would like to thank Johnnie DeLoach, Matthew Sinfield, and Jeffrey Farren with the Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division, West Bethesda, MD for providing the naval steels used in this study. Thanks are extended to Prof Gregory Olson’s research group in Northwestern University for collaboration on this research project and QuesTek Innovations LLC for providing the BA-160 steel. Dejian Liu and Geoffrey Taber are acknowledged for their constructive ideas and assistance with building the implant testing system.


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Copyright information

© International Institute of Welding 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Welding Engineering ProgramThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

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