Organizational Process as Antecedent of Managerial Flexibility

  • Umesh Kumar Bamel
  • Santosh Rangnekar
  • Renu Rastogi
  • Suman Kumar
Original Article


Resource flexibility view describes the scope that resources can be deployed alternatively, instantly and extensively. Likewise, managerial flexibility reflects the switching ability of human cadre during reengineering and reorganization. Managerial flexibility is an important entrepreneurial endeavor and helps in mitigating the changing challenges of the growing business. Managerial flexibility also enables an organization to thrive competitiveness during volatility. Organizational process (OP) provides a guiding framework for behavior within organizational sphere. Often, managerial flexibility considered as an ingredient of managerial behavior. Therefore, present paper examines the relationship of OP and managerial flexibility considering OP as an antecedent of the managerial flexibility. For this purpose teamwork, communication and collaborative decision-making, work place for creativity and performance management system were taken as sub-dimensions of OP. Initially, based on extant and relevant literature survey a conceptual model was hypothesized. Subsequently, hierarchical regression was employed to obtain the empirical findings of the conceptual model. The empirical findings elucidated that teamwork, communication and collaborative decision-making and work place support for creativity dimensions of OP significantly predicts managerial flexibility, whereas performance management system did not show any significant predictory relationship with managerial flexibility. In conclusion, based on the extant literature as well as on the empirical findings of the study, it is obvious to suggest that organization must adopt such kind of OPs that nurtures the managerial flexibility.


Collaborative decision-making Communication Creativity Managerial flexibility Organizational process Performance management system (PMS) Teamwork 


  1. Amabile, T. M., Barsade, S. G., Mueller, J. S., & Staw, B. M. (2005). Affect and Creativity at Work. Administrative Science Quarterly, 50, 367–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amabile, T. M., Conti, R., Coon, H., Lazenby, J., & Herron, M. (1996). Assessing the Work Environment for Creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 39(5), 1154–1184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Analoui, F. (1999). Eight Parameters of Managerial Effectiveness: a Study of Senior Managers in Ghana. Journal of Management Development, 18(40), 362–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Appel-Meulenbroek, H. (2006) A Physical work environment for knowledge sharing in organizations. In M. Torkkeli & R. S. C. Zutshi (Eds.), Proceedings of the XVII ISPIM Annual Conference Networks for Innovation, Athens, Greece, 11–14 June 2006. ISPIM.Google Scholar
  5. Atkinson, J. (1985) Flexibility, Uncertainty and Manpower Management. Brighton: Institute of Manpower Studies. (IMS Report No. 89).Google Scholar
  6. Atkinson, J., & Gregory, D. (1986). A flexible future: Britain’s dual labour force. Marxism Today, 30(4), 12–17.Google Scholar
  7. Bamel, U., Rangnekar, S. and Rastogi, R. (2011) Do Gender, Position, and Organization Shape Human Resource Flexibility? Glogift 11, paper code GLO 26.Google Scholar
  8. Borghini, S. (2005). Organizational creativity: Breaking equilibrium and order to innovate. Journal of Knowledge Management, 9(4), 19–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burleson, W., & Selker, T. (2002). Creativity and interface. Communications of the ACM, 45(10), 89–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chauhan, V. S., Dhar, U., & Pathak, R. D. (2005). Factorial constitution of managerial effectiveness: Re-examining an instrument in indian context. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20(2), 164–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clinquini, L., & Mitchell, F. (2005). Success in management accounting: Lessons from the activity-based costing/management experience. Journal of Accounting and Organizational Change, 1(1), 63–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Daft, R. L. (1998). Organization theory and design. Cincinnati: South-Western College Publishing.Google Scholar
  13. Daft, R. L. (2009). Principles of management. New Delhi: Cengage learning.Google Scholar
  14. Dalpati, A., Rangnekar, S., & Birasnav, M. (2010). Knowledge management and supply chain flexibility performance in indian manufacturing industry: An Empirical Study. Global Journal of e-Business and Knowledge Management, 6(1), 10–17.Google Scholar
  15. DiLiello, T. C., & Houghton, J. D. (2006). Maximizing organizational leadership for the future: Toward a model of self-leadership, innovation and creativity. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(4), 319–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Drazin, R., & van de Ven, A. H. (1985). Alternative forms of fit in contingency theory. Administrative Science Quarterly, 30(4), 514–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Edmondson, A. C. (2012). Teamwork on the Fly. Harvard Business Review, 90(4), 72–80.Google Scholar
  18. Florida, R., & Goodnight, J. (2005). Managing for creativity. Harvard Business Review, 83(7–8), 124–131.Google Scholar
  19. Gupta, M. P., Sahu, G. P., & Gauri, S. (2006). Assessing impact of mobile communications on organizations: A flexibility analysis. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 6(3–4), 11–23.Google Scholar
  20. Haner, E. U. (2005). Spaces for creativity and innovation in two established organizations. Creativity and Innovation Management, 14(3), 288–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Horwitz, F. M., & Townshend, M. (1993). Elements in participation, teamwork and flexibility in South Africa. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 4(4), 917–934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Joy III, L. W. (1996) Innovative appraisal/reward strategy for high-performance teams, Annual International Conference Proceedings-American Production and Inventory Control Society, (code 45441, pp. 108–111).Google Scholar
  23. Kramar, R. (1999). Policies for managing people in Australia: What has changed in the 1990s? Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resource, 37(2), 24–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Langfield-Smith, K., Thorne, H., & Hilton, R. (2009). Management accounting: An Australian perspective (6th ed.). Sydney: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  25. Langford, V. (1979). Managerial effectiveness: A review of literature. In M. Broide & R. Bennett (Eds.), Perspective of managerial effectiveness. Thorne: Thames Valley Regional Management Centre.Google Scholar
  26. Lansbury, R. D. (1995). Workplace Europe: New forms of bargaining and participation’. New Technology Work and Employment, 10(1), 47–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lau, R. S. M. (1999). Critical factors for achieving manufacturing flexibility. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 19(30), 328–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Locke, R., Kochan, T., & Piore, M. (1995). Employment relations in a changing world. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  29. Lui, S. S., Ngo, H. Y., & Tsang, A. W. N. (2001). Interrole conflict as a predictor of job satisfaction and propensity to leave: A study of professional accountants. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 16(6), 469–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Margerison, C. (1981). Where’d you learn to be a manager? Supervisory Management, 26(2), 40–53.Google Scholar
  31. Martens, Y. (2011). Creative workplace: Instrumental and symbolic support for creativity. Facilities, 29(1–2), 63–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mathisen, G. E., & Einarsen, S. (2004). A review assessing creative and innovative environments within organizations. Creativity Research Journal, 16(1), 119–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mayer, R. E. (1999). Fifty years of creativity research. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 449–460). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Mital, K. M. (2011) Productivity and Flexible Labour Management: An Indian Perspective, Glogift 2011, paper code GLO 15/2011.Google Scholar
  35. Mott, E. P. (1971). The characteristics of effective organizations. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  36. Moynihan, D. P. and Pandey, S.K. (2006) Creating desirable organizational characteristics: How organizations create a focus on results and managerial authority, Working Paper Series La Follette School, Working Paper No. 2005-027, 1-36.Google Scholar
  37. Naim, K., & Vener, G. (2011). Collaborative decision-making in emergency and disaster management. International Journal of Public Administration, 34(6), 366–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Narayan, S., & Rangnekar, S. (2009). Organizational culture and job involvement as predictors of managerial effectiveness: An empirical study of power sector in India. Indian Journal of Training and Development, 39(3), 35–44.Google Scholar
  39. Narayan, S., & Rangnekar, S. (2011). An Empirical Study of Managerial Effectiveness and its Flexibility and Adaptability Components in Indian Organizations. In Proceedings of 11th Global Conference on Flexible Systems and Management (IIMK-Glogift 11) (paper code GLO 16/2011). Indian Institute of Management Kozikode, Gift Society PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  40. Pethe, S., Chaudhari, S., & Dhar, U. (2001). Manual for organizational climate scale. Agra: National Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  41. Phillips, P. A., & Wright, C. (2009). E-business’s impact on organizational flexibility. Journal of Business Research, 62(11), 1071–1080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Raffaella, V., Sarah, W., Frank, M., & Chris, S. (2012). The practice of teamwork in health industry call centres. Employee Relations, 34(3), 288–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rangenekar, S. (1999) A Study of Locus of Control and Learned Helplessness as Predictors of Managerial Effectiveness, Unpublished Thesis, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore.Google Scholar
  44. Rankin, G. D., & Kleiner, B. H. (1988). Effective performance appraisal. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 88(1/2), 13–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Roy, M. H. (2001). Small group communication and performance: Do cognitive flexibility and context matter? Management Decision, 39(4), 323–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sanchez, A. M., & Perez, M. P. (2003). Flexibility in new product development: A survey of practices and its relationship with the product’s technological complexity. Technovation, 23(2), 26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Seguy, A., Noyes, D., & Clermont, P. (2010). Characterization of collaborative decision making processes. International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 23(11), 1046–1058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Singh, N. (2011) Flexmark: Scale for Testing Flexibility in the Marketing System, Glogift 2011, paper code GLO7/2011.Google Scholar
  49. Sommer, R. A. (2003). Business process flexibility: A driver for outsourcing. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 103(3), 177–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sternberg, R. J. (1988). A Three-facet Model of Creativity. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), The Nature of Creativity, Cambridge University Press (pp. 125–147). NY: New York.Google Scholar
  51. Sternberg, R. J. (Ed.). (1999). Handbook of Creativity. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Sternberg, R. (2007) Robert Sternberg on Creativity, Lecture at University of Tilburg, November 15, 2007 from sternberg/.
  53. Sushil, (2001). Demythifying Flexibility. Management Decision, 39(10), 860–865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sushil, (2005). A flexible strategy framework for managing continuity and change. International Journal of Global Business and Competitiveness, 1(1), 22–32.Google Scholar
  55. Sushil, (2010). Flexible strategy game-card. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 11(1–2), 3–4.Google Scholar
  56. TenDam, H. W. (1987). Managerial flexibility: A strategic asset. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 8(2), 11–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tsoukas, H., & Chia, R. (2002). On organizational becoming: Rethinking organizational change. Organization Science, 13, 567–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Vallas, S. P. (2006). Theorizing teamwork under contemporary capitalism. Research in the Sociology of Work, 16, 3–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Venkatraman, N. (1989). The concept of fit in strategy research: Toward verbal and statistical correspondence. Academy of Management Review, 14(3), 423–444.Google Scholar
  60. Verdu′-Jover, A. J., Go′mez-Gras, J. M., & Llore′ns-Montes, F. J. (2008). Exploring managerial flexibility: Determinants and performance implications. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 108(1), 70–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Volberda, H. W. (1996). Toward the flexible form: How to remain vital in hypercompetitive environments. Organization Science, 7(4), 359–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wannapa, W., Supol, D., & Pakpachong, V. (2012). The factors of innovative organization: Some evidence in Thailand. Global Conference on Business and Finance Proceedings, 7(1), 531–536.Google Scholar
  63. Weiser, J. R. (2000). Organizational alignment: Are we heading in the same direction? The Kansas Banker, 90(1), 11–15.Google Scholar
  64. Winer, M., & Ray, K. (1994). Collaboration handbook: Creating, sustaining, and enjoying the journey. St. Paul: Amherst H. Wilder Foundation.Google Scholar
  65. Woodman, R. W., Sawyer, J. E., & Griffin, R. W. (1993). Toward a theory of organizational creativity. Academy of Management Review, 18(2), 293–321.Google Scholar
  66. Zolin, R., Kuckertz, A., & Kautonen, T. (2011). Human resource flexibility and strong ties in entrepreneurial teams. Journal of Business Research, 64(10), 1097–1103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Global Institute of Flexible Systems Management 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Umesh Kumar Bamel
    • 1
  • Santosh Rangnekar
    • 1
  • Renu Rastogi
    • 2
  • Suman Kumar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Management StudiesIndian Institute of Technology RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia
  2. 2.Department of Humanities & Social SciencesIndian Institute of Technology RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia

Personalised recommendations