Advertisement

Maritime Studies

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 335–346 | Cite as

Managing Mercado del Mar: a case of women’s entrepreneurship in the fishing industry

  • Carmen Pedroza-GutiérrezEmail author
Research

Abstract

Nowadays, women’s participation in the fishing industry is increasing worldwide and women are more involved in activities that were traditionally male-dominated. Many studies have highlighted women’s low-paid labor, but the influential positions women can hold in fisheries and in fish trading have rarely been described. Through exploring women’s experiences and hindrances in the second largest wholesale fish market in Mexico, this study identifies the main drivers that have led women in the Mercado del Mar to work in fish trade, to occupy managerial positions in fishing businesses, and to hold influential positions in this market. Twelve interviews were conducted with women entrepreneurs in the fish market coupled with observations of daily activities in the market and informal interviews with men business owners. Different pathways to and experiences of entering into the fishing business were found. All these have to do with family networking and the different skill sets that each woman possesses and develops. Some women started the family business as middle-women, peddling fish on a small-scale basis, eventually building their business, and achieving an influential position in the market. Other women inherited an already thriving business from their parents and learned how to manage it from a young age. Finally, the division of labor in the Mercado del Mar depends on the abilities of each person, how they perform their roles, and the support that family networks and cultural heritage represent rather than gendered social norms.

Keywords

Women business leaders Value chain Wholesale fish markets Gender division of labor 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author acknowledges the valuable suggestions made by the editors and the anonymous reviewers. She also would like to give a special thanks to Danika Kleiber and Holly Hapke for their very helpful comments.

Funding information

The study was funded by the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) under grant PAPIIT IN301517.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author declares that there is no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Ahl, Helene. 2006. Why research on women entrepreneurs needs new directions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 30 (5): 595–621.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2006.00138.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Álvarez, Claudia, María Noguera, and David Urbano. 2012. Condicionantes Del Entorno y Emprendimiento Femenino. Un Estudio Cuantitativo En España. Econ Ind Democr 383: 43–52 https://repository.udem.edu.co/handle/11407/3329.Google Scholar
  3. Barclay, Kate, Nicholas McClean, Simon Foale, Reuben Sulu, and Sarah Lawless. 2018. Lagoon livelihoods: gender and shell money in Langalanga, Solomon Islands. Maritime Studies 17 (2): 199–211.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40152-018-0111-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bernard, H. Russell (Harvey Russell). 2006. Research methods in anthropology: qualitative and quantitative approaches. Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  5. Birley, Sue. 1989. Female entrepreneurs: are they really any different? J Small Bus Manag 27 (1): 32–37 https://dspace.lib.cranfield.ac.uk/bitstream/1826/439/2/SWP0587.pdf.Google Scholar
  6. Bosma, Niels, and Donna Kelley. 2018. Global entrepreneurship monitor 2018/2019.Google Scholar
  7. Bruni, Attila, Silvia Gherardi, and Barbara Poggio. 2004. Entrepreneur-mentality, gender and the study of women entrepreneurs. J Organ Chang Manag 17 (3): 256–268.  https://doi.org/10.1108/09534810410538315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Buttner, E. Holly. 2001. Examining female entrepreneurs’ management style: an application of a relational frame. J Bus Ethics 29 (3): 253–269.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026460615436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Calas, M.B., and L. Smircich. 1992. Rewriting gender into organizational theorizing: direction from feminist perspectives. In Rethinking organizations: new directions in organizational theory and analysis, ed. M. Reed and D. Hughes, 132–159. London: Sage https://scholar.google.com.mx/scholar?hl=es&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Rewriting+gender+into+Organizational+Theorizing%3A+directions+from+Feminist+Perspectives&btnG.Google Scholar
  10. Cavada, M.C., V. Bobek, H. Skoko, and A. Macek. 2018. Cultural foundations of female entrepreneurship in Mexico: challenges and opportunities. Naše Gospodarstvo/Our Economy 64 (1): 28–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen, Martha Alter. 2001. Women in the informal sector: a global picture, the global movement. World Bank 2001 http://www.cpahq.org/cpahq/cpadocs/module6mc.pdf.
  12. Connell, R.W., and James W. Messerschmidt. 2005. Hegemonic masculinity. Rethinking the concept. Gend Soc 19 (6): 829–859.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243205278639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eagly, Alice H. 1987. Sex differences in social behavior: a social-role interpretation. New Jersey: Hillsdale https://content.taylorfrancis.com/books/download?dac=C2007-0-01844-1&isbn=9781134931149&format=googlePreviewPdf.Google Scholar
  14. Eisenhardt, Kathleen M., and Melissa E. Graebner. 2007. Theory building from cases: opportunities and challenges. Acad Manag J 50 (1): 25–32.  https://doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2007.24160888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. FAO. 2006. Title gender policies for responsible fisheries. Roma.Google Scholar
  16. Fröcklin, Sara, Maricela de la Torre-Castro, Lars Lindström, and Narriman S. Jiddawi. 2013. Fish traders as key actors in fisheries: gender and adaptive management. AMBIO 42 (8): 951–962.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-013-0451-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gallardo-Fernández, Gloria L., and Fred Saunders. 2018. ‘Before we asked for permission, now we only give notice’: women’s entrance into artisanal fisheries in Chile. Maritime Studies 17 (2): 177–188.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40152-018-0110-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Godoy, Cecilia, Hermes Orlando Mojica Benítez, Viviana María Ríos Moringo, and David H. Mendoza Ramírez. 2016. El Rol de La Mujer En La Pesca y La Acuicultura En Chile, Colombia, Paraguay y Perú. Roma. http://www.fao.org/3/a-i5774s.pdf.
  19. Hapke, Holly M. 2001. Petty traders, gender, and development in a south Indian fishery*. Econ Geogr 77 (3): 225–249.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-8287.2001.tb00163.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Harper, Sarah, Dirk Zeller, Melissa Hauzer, Daniel Pauly, and Ussif Rashid Sumaila. 2013. Women and fisheries: contribution to food security and local economies. Mar Policy 39 (May): 56–63.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MARPOL.2012.10.018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. INEGI. 2015. Censos Económicos. Los Hombres y Las Mujeres En Las Actividades Económicas. Edited by Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía. Aguascalientes: INEGI. http://internet.contenidos.inegi.org.mx/contenidos/Productos/prod_serv/contenidos/espanol/bvinegi/productos/nueva_estruc/CE_2014/702825077938.pdf.
  22. INEGI. 2018. Encuesta Nacional de Ocupación y Empleo. Aguascalientes.Google Scholar
  23. Kelley, Donna, Benjamin Baumer, Candida Brush, Patricia Greene, Mahnaz Mahdavi, Mahdi Majbouri, Marcia Cole, Monica Dean, and René Heavlow. 2016. Women’s entrepreneurship 2016/2017 report.Google Scholar
  24. Kusakabe, Kyoko, Prak Sereyvath, Ubolratana Suntornratana, and Napaporn Sriputinibondh. 2008. Gendering border spaces: impact of open border policy between Cambodia-Thailand on small-scale women fish traders. African and Asian Studies 7 (1): 1–17.  https://doi.org/10.1163/156921008X273079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Manyungwa-Pasani, Chikondi L., and Mafaniso Hara. 2019. Women’s engagement in and outcomes from small scale fisheries value chains in Malawi: effects of social relations. Maritime Studies In press.Google Scholar
  26. McClanahan, Timothy R., and Caroline Abunge. 2017. Fish Trader’s gender and niches in a declining coral reef fishery: Implications for sustainability. Ecosystem Health and Sustainability 3 (6): 1–22.  https://doi.org/10.1080/20964129.2017.1353288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Medard, Modesta, Dijk Van Han, and Paul Hebinck. 2019. Competing for Kayabo. Gender struggles for fish and livelihood on the shores of Lake Victoria. Maritime Studies In press.Google Scholar
  28. Morris, Michael H., Nola N. Miyasaki, Craig E. Watters, and Susan M. Coombes. 2006. The dilemma of growth: understanding venture size choices of women entrepreneurs. In Journal of Small Business Management 44: 221–244.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-627X.2006.00165.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Navarro-Smith, Alejandro. 2008. Cucapás, Derechos Indígenas y Pesca. Dilemas Del Sistema Productivo Pesquero Vis a Vis Las Políticas de Conservación de Las Especies En El Golfo de California. Revista Chilena de Antropología Visual, no 12: 171–196 http://www.rchav.cl/imagenes12/imprimir/navarro_imp.pdf.Google Scholar
  30. Olson, Shirley F., and Helen M. Currie. 1992. Female entrepreneurs: personal value systems and business strategies in a male-dominated industry. J Small Bus Manag 30 (1): 49–58 https://search.proquest.com/openview/e6fa8de46530fd9015d274e093cfdcf6/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=49244.Google Scholar
  31. Overå, Ragnhild. 1993. Wives and traders: women’s careers in Ghanaian canoe fisheries. Maritime Anthropological Studies 6 (1–2): 110–135 https://www.africabib.org/rec.php?RID=W00090988.Google Scholar
  32. Padilla, C. 1997. Todo Queda En Familia. El Mercado de Abastos de Abastos de Guadalajara: Universidad de Guadalajara https://scholar.google.com.mx/scholar?hl=es&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Todo+queda+en+familia.+El+mer-+cado+de+abastos+de+Guadalajara&btnG.Google Scholar
  33. Perea-Blázquez, Alejandra, and Fátima Flores-Palacios. 2016. Participación de Las Mujeres En La Pesca: Nuevos Roles de Género, Ingresos Económicos y Doble Jornada. Sociedad y Ambiente 1 (9): 121–141 http://revistas.ecosur.mx/sociedadyambiente/index.php/sya/article/view/1636.Google Scholar
  34. Pérez-Pérez, Carmina, and Manuela Avilés-Hernández. 2016. Explanatory factors of female entrepreneurship and limiting elements. Suma de Negocios 7 (15): 25–31.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.SUMNEG.2015.12.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rubio-Bañón, Alicia, and Nuria Esteban-Lloret. 2016. Cultural factors and gender role in female entrepreneurship. Suma de Negocios 7 (15): 9–17.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.SUMNEG.2015.12.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Salganik, Matthew J., and Douglas D. Heckathorn. 2004. Sampling and estimation in hidden populations using respondent-driven sampling. Sociol Methodol 34 (1): 193–240.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0081-1750.2004.00152.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sarri, Katerina, and Anna Trihopoulou. 2005. Female entrepreneurs’ personal characteristics and motivation: a review of the Greek situation. Women Manag Rev 20 (1): 24–36.  https://doi.org/10.1108/09649420510579559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Scott, Carole E. 1986. Why more women are becoming entrepreneurs. J Small Bus Manag 24 (4): 37–45 https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-4587543/why-more-women-are-becoming-entrepreneurs.Google Scholar
  39. Shane, Scott. 1993. Cultural influences on national rates of innovation. J Bus Ventur 8 (1): 59–73.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0883-9026(93)90011-S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sikod, F. 2007. “Gender Division of Labour and Women’s Decision-Making Power in Rural Households in Cameroon.” Africa Development 32 (3). CODESRIA.  https://doi.org/10.4314/ad.v32i3.57192.
  41. Stevenson, Lois A. 1986. Against all odds: the entrepreneurship of women. J Small Bus Manag 24 (4): 30–36. https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-4587542/against-all-odds-the-entrepreneurship-of-women.Google Scholar
  42. Stier, Haya, and Hadas Mandel. 2009. Inequality in the family: the institutional aspects of women’s earning contribution. Soc Sci Res 38 (3): 594–608.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.SSRESEARCH.2009.01.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Still, Leonie V., and Wendy Timms. 2000. Women’s business: the flexible alternative workstyle for women. Women Manag Rev 15 (5/6): 272–283.  https://doi.org/10.1108/09649420010372931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Stoner, Charles R., Richard I. Hartman, and Raj Arora. 1990a. Work/family conflict: a study of women in management. Journal of Applied Business Research (JABR) 7 (1): 67–74.  https://doi.org/10.19030/jabr.v7i1.6261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Stoner, Charles R., Richard I. Hartman, and Raj Arora. 1990b. Work-home role conflict in female owners of small businesses: an explanatory study. J Small Bus Manag 28 (1): 30–38.Google Scholar
  46. Vales, Eulalia. 2005. A Participacao Da Mulher Na Pesca Em Mozambique. In Women in Fisheries and Aquaculture : Lessons from the Past , Current Actions and Ambitions for the Future, edited by Katia Frangoudes and José J. Pascual-Fernandez, Proceeding, 199–208. Tenerife: Tenerife: Asociacion Canaria de Antropologia. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jose_Pascual-Fernandez/publication/268416668_Women_in_Fisheries_and_aquaculture_lessons_from_the_past_current_actions_and_ambitions_for_the_future/links/54aed7d10cf21670b358740f.pdf.
  47. Vázquez, Verónica, Lourdes Godínez, María Montes, Margarita Montes, and Ana Silvia Ortiz. 2004. La Pesca Indígena de Autoconsumo En Veracruz. Papel En La Dieta y División Genérica Del Trabajo. Estudios Sociales 12 (24). http://www.redalyc.org/html/417/41751459003/.
  48. Ventura-Fernández, Rafael, and María José Quero-Gervilla. 2013. Factores Explicativos de La Intención de Emprender En La Mujer. Aspectos Diferenciales En La Población Universitaria Según La Variable Género. Cuadernos de Gestión 13 (1): 127–149.  https://doi.org/10.5295/cdg.100271rv.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Walker, Barbara Louise Endemano. 2001. Sisterhood and seine-nets: engendering development and conservation in Ghana’s marine fishery. Prof Geogr 53 (2): 160–177.  https://doi.org/10.1111/0033-0124.00277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Watters, John K., and Patrick Biernacki. 1989. Targeted sampling: options for the study of hidden populations. Soc Probl 36 (4): 416–430.  https://doi.org/10.2307/800824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Weeratunge, Nireka, Katherine A. Snyder, and Choo Poh Sze. 2010. Gleaner, fisher, trader, processor: understanding gendered employment in fisheries and aquaculture. Fish Fish 11 (4): 405–420.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2979.2010.00368.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. World-Bank. 2012. The hidden harvests: the global contribution of capture fisheries. In Roma: Washington. DC (USA) International: Bank for Reconstruction and Development/World Bank http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=XF2016050854.Google Scholar
  53. Yin, Robert K. 1994. Discovering the future of the case study. Method in evaluation research. Am J Eval 15 (3): 283–290.  https://doi.org/10.1177/109821409401500309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Unidad Académica de Estudios Regionales, Escuela Nacional de Estudios Superiores-Unidad Mérida, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoMéridaMexico

Personalised recommendations