Advertisement

Journal of Advanced Ceramics

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 370–379 | Cite as

Zeolite usage as source of silica to produce cordierite in MgO–Al2O3–SiO2 system

  • Tugba Tunç ParlakEmail author
  • A. Sükran Demirkiran
Open Access
Research Article
  • 62 Downloads

Abstract

In this study, natural zeolite was used as source of silica to produce cordierite. MgO and Al2O3 were added to zeolite to obtain the cordierite stoichiometry. Mixture of these raw materials was mechanically activated for different durations. The mechanically activated powder mixture was characterized using XRD, DSC, SEM, specific surface area, and particle size analyzer. The pycnometer method was used to measure the densities of mechanically activated powder mixtures. Mechanically activated for 60 min powder mixture was sintered at 1150–1350 °C for 1 h. The sintering behavior of the samples was determined by measuring the linear shrinkage, density, and apparent porosity. The phases in the sintered samples were identified by XRD. Cordierite and spinel phases were detected for sintered at a temperature higher than 1150 °C but corundum accompanied to cordierite and spinel at 1150 °C. The microstructure of the samples was examined using both SEM and AFM. The sintering behavior and microstructural properties of the samples changed with an increase in the sintering temperature. As the apparent porosity increased with increasing sintering temperature, linear shrinkage and density values decreased. Density values were determined as 2.31–2.69 g/cm3 depending on the temperature. The grains coarsened at higher temperature and the average grain size depending on the temperature was 1.34–1.96 μm. From the results optimum sintering temperature was determined as 1250 °C. Dense material was produced at a temperature as low as 1250 °C using zeolite as raw material.

Keywords

mechanical activation sintering zeolite cordierite 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was performed within the project 2010-01-08-014. We thank the Commission for Scientific Research Projects of Sakarya University for funding this project.

References

  1. [1]
    Hayati EZ, Moradi OM, Kakroudi MG. Investigation the effect of sintering temperature on Young’s modulus evaluation and thermal shock behavior of a cordierite–mullite based composite. Mater Design 2013, 45: 571–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Obradović N, Đorđević N, Filipović S, et al. Influence of mechanochemical activation on the sintering of cordierite ceramics in the presence of Bi2O3 as a functional additive. Powder Technol 2012, 218: 157–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Acimovic Z, Pavlovic L, Trumbulovic L, et al. Synthesis and characterization of the cordierite ceramics from nonstandard raw materials for application in foundry. Mater Lett 2003, 57: 2651–2656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Yamuna A, Johnson R, Mahajan YR, et al. Kaolin-based cordierite for pollution control. J Eur Ceram Soc 2004, 24: 65–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Ogiwara T, Noda Y, Shoji K, et al. Solid state synthesis and its characterization of high density cordierite ceramics using fine oxide powders. J Ceram Soc Jpn 2010, 118: 246–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Association of the German Ceramic Industry. Breviary Technical Ceramics. Fahner Verlag, Lauf, 2004.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Goren R, Ozgur C, Gocmez H. The preparation of cordierite from talc, fly ash, fused silica and alumina mixtures. Ceram Int 2006, 32: 53–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Ghitulica C, Andronescu E, Nicola O, et al. Preparation and characterization of cordierite powders. J Eur Ceram Soc 2007, 27: 711–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    González-Velasco JR, Ferret R, López-Fonseca R, et al. Influence of particle size distribution of precursor oxides on the synthesis of cordierite by solid-state reaction. Powder Technol 2005, 153: 34–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Camerucci MA, Urretavizcaya G, Cavalieri AL. Sintering of cordierite based materials. Ceram Int 2003, 29: 159–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Maier N, Nickel KG, Engel C, et al. Mechanisms and orientation dependence of the corrosion of single crystal cordierite by model diesel particulate ashes. J Eur Ceram Soc 2010, 30: 1629–1640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Kurama S, Kurama H. The reaction kinetics of rice husk based cordierite ceramics. Ceram Int 2008, 34: 269–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Azín NJ, Camerucci MA, Cavalieri AL. Crystallisation of non-stoichiometric cordierite glasses. Ceram Int 2005, 31: 189–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Đorđević NG, Jovanić PB. Influence of mechanical activation on electrical properties of cordierite ceramics. Sci Sinter 2008, 40: 47–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Krivoshapkina EF, Krivoshapkin PV, Vedyagin AA. Synthesis of Al2O3–SiO2–MgO ceramics with hierarchical porous structure. J Adv Ceram 2017, 6: 11–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Krivoshapkina EF, Vedyagin AA, Krivoshapkin PV, et al. Carbon monoxide oxidation over microfiltration ceramic membranes. Pet Chem 2015, 55: 901–908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Bejjaoui R, Benhammou A, Nibou L, et al. Synthesis and characterization of cordierite ceramic from Moroccan stevensite and andalusite. Appl Clay Sci 2010, 49: 336–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Shi Z. Preparation of cordierite ceramic using mixtures of Ce4+-modified amorphous powder and oxide powders. J Rare Earth 2006, 24: 263–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Neto JBR, Moreno R. Effect of mechanical activation on the rheology and casting performance of kaolin/talc/alumina suspensions for manufacturing dense cordierite bodies. Appl Clay Sci 2008, 38: 209–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Balaz P. Mechanochemistry in Nanoscience and Minerals Engineering. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2008.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Antsiferov VN, Porozova SE. Enhancing strength of high-porous cordierite ceramics by mechanochemical activation of the charge. Russ J Non-ferrous Metals 2007, 48: 456–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Tamborenea S, Mazzoni AD, Aglietti EF. Mechanochemical activation of minerals on the cordierite synthesis. Thermochim Acta 2004, 411: 219–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    German RM. Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials Processing. Princeton, USA: Metal Powder Industries Federation, 2005.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Marinković ZV, Nikolić N, Stojanović J, et al. The influence of mechanical activation of starting components on kinetics of cordierite formation. J Min Metall B 2001, 37: 67–75.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Goren R, Gocmez H, Ozgur C. Synthesis of cordierite powder from talc, diatomite and alumina. Ceram Int 2006, 32: 407–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Tunç T, Demirkıran AŞ. The effects of mechanical activation on the sintering and microstructural properties of cordierite produced from natural zeolite. Powder Technol 2014, 260: 7–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Weitkamp J. Zeolites and catalysis. Solid State Ionics 2000, 131: 175–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    Demirkiran AŞ, Artir R, Avci E. Effect of natural zeolite addition on sintering kinetics of porcelain bodies. J Mater Process Tech 2008, 203: 465–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Chandrasekhar S, Pramada PN. Thermal studies of low silica zeolites and their magnesium exchanged forms. Ceram Int 2002, 28: 177–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    Karadag D, Koc Y, Turan M, et al. A comparative study of linear and non-linear regression analysis for ammonium exchange by clinoptilolite zeolite. J Hazard Mater 2007, 144: 432–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Guczia L, Kiricsi I. Zeolite supported mono-and bimetallic systems: Structure and performance as CO hydrogenation catalysts. Appl Catal A 1999, 186: 375–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Vander Voort GF. Metallography-Principles and Practice. McGraw-Hill, 1984.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    Kambale KR., Kulkarni AR, Venkataramani N. Grain growth kinetics of barium titanate synthesized using conventional solid state reaction route. Ceram Int 2014, 40: 667–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    Tromans D, Meech JA. Enhanced dissolution of minerals: stored energy, amorphism and mechanical activation. Miner Eng 2001, 14: 1359–1377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    Charkhi A, Kazemian H, Kazemeini M. Optimized experimental design for natural clinoptilolite zeolite ball milling to produce nano powders. Powder Technol 2010, 203: 389–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    Yang Z, Liu Y, Yu C, et al. Ball-milled NaA zeolite seeds with submicron size for growth of NaA zeolite membranes. J Membrane Sci 2012, 392–393: 18–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    Su X, Du X, Li S. Synthesis of MgAl2O4 spinel nanoparticles using a mixture of bayerite and magnesium sulfate. J Nanopart Res 2010, 12: 1813–1819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    Redaoui D, Sahnoune F, Heraiz M, et al. Phase formation and crystallization kinetics in cordierite ceramics prepared from kaolinite and magnesia. Ceram Int 2018, 44: 3649–3657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    Yürüyen S, Toplan N, Yildiz K, et al. The non-isothermal kinetics of cordierite formation in mechanically activated talc–kaolinite–alumina ceramics system. J Therm Anal Calorim 2016, 125: 803–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    Naskar MK, Chatterjee M. A novel process for the synthesis of cordierite (Mg2Al4Si5O18) powders from rice husk ash and other sources of silica and their comparative study. J Eur Ceram Soc 2004, 24: 3499–3508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    Banjuraizah J, Mohamad H, Ahmad ZA. Effect of excess MgO mole ratio in a stoichiometric cordierite (2MgO·2Al2O3·5SiO2) composition on the phase transformation and crystallization behavior of magnesium aluminum silicate phases. Int J Appl Ceram Technol 2011, 8: 637–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    Hamzawy EM, El-Kheshen AA, Zawrah MF. Densification and properties of glass/cordierite composites. Ceram Int 2005, 31: 383–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. [43]
    Fotoohi B, Blackburn S. Effects of mechanochemical processing and doping of functional oxides on phase development in synthesis of cordierite. J Eur Ceram Soc 2012, 32267–2272.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Open Access The articles published in this journal are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://doi.org/creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringSakarya University, Esentepe Campus54187Turkey

Personalised recommendations