Neurologic, Cognitive, and Behavioral Consequences of Opioid Overdose: a Review

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Purpose of Review

To review the literature regarding neurologic, cognitive, and behavioral disorders resulting from non-fatal opioid overdose.

Recent Findings

Although there is extensive literature regarding hypoxic-ischemic brain injury resulting from cardiac arrest, studies specifically examining opioid-induced brain injury are limited, derived mainly from patient case reports or animal models. Medical management of this population requires careful consideration of acute and long-term complications, as well as careful treatment planning in coordination with neurology, neuropsychology, psychiatry, and addiction medicine.


In addition to interventions to prevent fatal opioid overdose, further studies are needed on the neurologic, cognitive, and behavioral sequelae of opioid overdose in order to develop an effective long-term treatment strategy to manage the healthcare needs of this population.

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Correspondence to Justin S. Hong.

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Hong, J.S., Moran, M.T., Eaton, L.A. et al. Neurologic, Cognitive, and Behavioral Consequences of Opioid Overdose: a Review. Curr Phys Med Rehabil Rep 7, 305–313 (2019).

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  • Opioid
  • Overdose
  • Brain injury
  • Cognition
  • Behavior
  • Hypoxic ischemic