Current Anesthesiology Reports

, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp 238–244 | Cite as

Latest Advances in Cardiac Output Monitoring from High-Definition Impedance Cardiography

  • Jean J. Bour
Advances in Monitoring for Anesthesia (LAH Critchley, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Advances in Monitoring for Anesthesia


Purpose of Review

Cardiac output (CO) and hemodynamic parameters, and specifically the noninvasive approach to their measurement, have been the subject of continuous technological developments and lengthy debates. The challenge remains to measure these parameters in a user friendly and cost-effective way, without compromising accuracy and with few limitations in the real clinical environment.

Recent Findings

The industry might have solved the issue with the latest development of thoracic bioimpedance, called high-definition impedance cardiography (HD-ICG) and based on the direct analysis of morphology of the heart impedance signals. It may offer improvements in accuracy, inter-operator reproducibility, sensitivity, and parameters management, and also simplifies the understanding of the etiology of cardiac dysfunctions.


HD-ICG might have the potential to make hemodynamic measurements in anesthesia come of age and become a clinical standard.


Cardiac output Hemodynamic monitoring Noninvasive Impedance cardiography Signal morphology Circulatory failure Fluid management Preoperative evaluation 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Jean J. Bour is co-inventor of the PhysioFlow HD-ICG technology, co-founder and minority shareholder of Manatec Biomedical, Poissy, France, and PhysioFlow Inc., Bristol, PA, USA. These companies develop and manufacture the PhysioFlow technology. He does not receive any consultancy fees, salaries, or royalties from these entities. He has also been issued two US patents (6161038 A and 20070293770 A1), which have been licensed to Manatec SARL (France) and PhysioFlow, Inc. (USA).

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

All reported studies/experiments with human or animal subjects performed by the authors have been previously published and complied with all applicable ethical standards (including the Helsinki declaration and its amendments, institutional/national research committee standards, and international/national/institutional guidelines).


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean J. Bour
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Internal Medicine and Cardiology DepartmentThe Lemire Hospital, Saint-AvoldSaint-AvoldFrance
  2. 2.Petit-EbersvillerFrance

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