The Challenge of Human Pathobiology in Space
- 16 Downloads
At the time of this writing, more than 550 persons from 37 countries have flown in space, some making the trip as many as seven times . The record for the longest cumulative time off of the Earth belongs to Russian cosmonaut Gennady I. Padalka, a veteran of five expeditions to the Russian Mir space station and the International Space Station who has spent a combined total of 879 days in Earth orbit. The US record for the most time in space is held by recently retired Astronaut Peggy Whitson, with a combined total of 666 days in orbit on board the International Space Station (http://www.spacefacts.de/bios/astronauts/english/whitson_peggy.htm).
Notwithstanding some serious accidents in flight, including many close calls and the tragic loss of life in the space shuttle disasters and on Russian space missions , it is evident that the initial phase of human space exploration has been a great success. We now know that humans are physically able to survive for over a year at a time in...
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Russell L. Kerschmann declares that he has no conflicts of interest to disclose.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
- 1.Fédération Aéronautique Internationale: Astronautic Records Commission (ICARE) https://www.fai.org/page/icare-records (inquired as of 5/20/2018).
- 2.Clark JB: Crew Survivability. In: Musgrave GE, Larson A,. Safety design for space systems, 1st edition. Elsevier, Oxford, UK: 2009. https://www.elsevier.com/books/safety-design-for-space-systems/musgrave-ph-d/978-0-7506-8580-1.
- 5.Atamna H, Tenore A, Lui F, Dhahbi JM. Organ reserve, excess metabolic capacity, and aging. Biogerontology. 2018;19(2):171–84. https://www.link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10522-018-9746-8 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 7.Rosslenbroich B. On the origin of autonomy: a new look at the major transitions in evolution. In: Wolfe CT, Huneman P, Reydon TAC. History, philosophy and theory of the live sciences, Volume 5 Springer: 2014 https://www.springer.com/us/book/9783319041407.
- 8.NASA. Technology roadmaps: TA 4: robotics and autonomous systems. 2015, https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/atoms/files/2015_nasa_technology_roadmaps_ta_4_robotics_and_autonomous_systems_final.pdf.
- 9.Summers RL, Smith LJ, Thomas HM, Williams DR. Emergencies in space. Ann Emerg Med. 2005;46(2):177–84. https://www.annemergmed.com/article/S0196-0644(05)00204-0/pdf.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar