Zoonosis: Update on Existing and Emerging Vector-Borne Illnesses in the USA
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Purpose of review
This review describes mosquito- and tick-borne diseases found in the Western Hemisphere. It focuses on emerging diseases and recent geographic shifts in the presence of disease vectors.
Mosquito and tick vectors have become more widespread as environmental conditions have become more favorable. Zika recently has emerged as a concern for fetal anomalies. West Nile Virus has become widespread. Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases are more prevalent in areas previously inhospitable to these ticks.
Healthcare providers must consider the possibility of mosquito- and tick-borne diseases in broader geographic areas and council patients traveling to endemic areas on precautions against these diseases. Treatment for suspected cases of serious tick-borne illnesses should not be delayed pending culture results.
KeywordsZoonosis Tick Mosquito Zika Lyme Vector-borne
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Sandra Lee Werner, Bhanu Kirthi Banda, Christopher Lee Burnsides, and Alexander James Stuber declare no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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