Emerging Infectious Diseases: a Review
- 75 Downloads
Purpose of Review
This review highlights some of the recent concerning emerging infectious diseases, a number of them specifically that the World Health Organization has categorized as priorities for research.
Emerging and reemerging infectious diseases account for significant losses in not only human life, but also financially. There are a number of contributing factors, most commonly surrounding human behavior, that lead to disease emergence. Zoonoses are the most common type of infection, specifically from viral pathogens. The most recent emerging diseases in the USA are Emergomyces canadensis, the Heartland virus, and the Bourbon virus.
In addition to the aforementioned pathogens, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, Nipah virus, New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase-1 Enterobacteriaceae, Rift Valley Fever virus, and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus are reviewed. These pathogens are very concerning with a high risk for potential epidemic, ultimately causing both significant mortality and financial costs. Research should be focused on monitoring, prevention, and treatment of these diseases.
KeywordsEmerging infectious diseases Reemerging infections Viral pathogens
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major Importance
- 10.World Health Organization (2004) WHO guidelines for the global surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/WHO_CDS_CSR_ARO_2004_1/en/.
- 15.•• World Health Organization (2017) WHO MERS-CoV Global Summary and Assessment of Risk. http://www.who.int/emergencies/mers-cov/risk-assessment-july-2017.pdf. This article gives the majority of a summary of perhaps most significant recent emerging infectious disease in terms of both mortality and number of cases. It describes not only the cases noted in the Middle East, but additionally the South Korean outbreak as well as cases imported to nations globally.
- 19.Madani TA et al (2015) Infection Prevention and Control Guidelines for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) Infection, 3rd Ed. https://www.moh.gov.sa/endepts/Infection/Documents/Guidelines-for-MERS-CoV.PDF.
- 22.Al Ghamdi M, et al. Treatment outcomes for patients with middle eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS CoV) infection at a coronavirus referral center in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16:174. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-016-1492-4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 31.Geisbert TW, Mire CE, Geisbert JB, Chan YP, Agans KN, Feldmann F, et al. Therapeutic treatment of Nipah virus infection in nonhuman primates with a neutralizing human monoclonal antibody. Sci Transl Med. 2014;6(242):242ra82. https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.3008929.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 36.Kumarasamy KK, Toleman MA, Walsh TR, Bagaria J, Butt F, Balakrishnan R, et al. Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2010;10(9):597–602. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(10)70143-2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 38.Mansfield KL, Banyard AC, McElhinney L, Johnson N, Horton DL, Hernández-Triana LM, et al. Rift Valley fever virus: a review of diagnosis and vaccination, and implications for emergence in Europe. Vaccine. 2015;33(42):5520–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.08.020.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 42.• Mendoza EJ et al. (2018) Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus: past, present and future insights for animal modelling and medical countermeasures. Zoonoses Public Health 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1111/zph.12469. This article highlights potential management strategies of the most widespread tick-borne viral disease globally.