Updates on Sexually Transmitted Infections: Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis Testing and Treatment in the Emergency Department
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Purpose of Review
This review describes current guidelines and research on screening, diagnostics, and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) seen in the emergency department (ED).
Many studies support less invasive testing for STIs, which in turn would encourage increased screening. The diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is currently based on clinical findings and further research is needed to improve diagnostic accuracy. Current antibiotic treatment guidelines are based on numerous studies. Drug-resistant gonorrhea is an issue worldwide and alternative treatments are currently being evaluated.
Highly sensitive testing has allowed for noninvasive screening. Increased screening in the ED would identify more infections and potentially prevent complications of untreated infections. Diagnosis of PID still requires a full pelvic examination given that diagnosis is based on exam findings. Antibiotic resistance is on the rise and treatment guidelines should be strictly followed. Future vaccine and novel antibiotics are currently in randomized control trials.
KeywordsSexually transmitted infection Emergency department screening Gonorrhea resistance Syphilis screening
Compliance With Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The author declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance
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