Endoscopic Endonasal Approach to Selected Lesions of the Petrous Apex

  • Georgios GiourgosEmail author
  • Andrea Bizzoni
  • Giovanni Danesi
OTOLOGY: Tumors of the Ear and Lateral Skull Base (G Danesi, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on OTOLOGY: Tumors of the Ear and Lateral Skull Base


Purpose of Review

Surgery of the petrous apex lesions is considered a surgical challenge. We report our experience and review the literature highlighting current indications and limits in the management of benign and malignant lesions with special focus on the endoscopic approaches.

Recent Findings

Over the last years, indications and limits of the extended endonasal approaches range from inflammatory disease of the paranasal sinuses to the management of various diseases involving the skull base such as CSF leak, pituitary tumors, ethmoid tumors, petrous apex lesions, and purely intracranial lesions thanks to the development of dedicated surgical instrumentation, the improvement of skull base reconstruction techniques, and a better knowledge of the anatomy.


Extended endonasal approach to petrous apex lesions is a safe and effective procedure for appropriately selected patients in the hands of experienced endoscopic skull base surgeons. Nowadays, referral centers equipped by surgical teams with expertise to both endoscopic and lateral skull base routes represent the most safe and effective way of treatment of those diseases.


Petrous apex lesions Extended endoscopic approach Skull base 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Georgios Giourgos
    • 1
    Email author
  • Andrea Bizzoni
    • 1
  • Giovanni Danesi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurosciences, Unit of Otorhinolaryngology - Microsurgery of the Skull BaseASST Papa Giovanni XXIIIBergamoItaly

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