Current Otorhinolaryngology Reports

, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 276–279 | Cite as

The Use of Computerised Simulation for the Training of Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

  • A. Simon Carney
  • Nuwan Dharmawardana
  • Karen Reynolds
Rhinology: Advances in endoscopic sinus surgery (R Sacks, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Rhinology: Advances in endoscopic sinus surgery


Purpose of Review

This review summarises the progress made in the development of computer–based simulation for the training of endoscopic sinus surgery. What are the current limitations of available simulators? What does the future hold for such technology?

Recent Findings

Advances in three-dimensional image processing and highly customisable programming platforms have meant that realistic, haptic feedback enabled, computerised virtual reality simulators are now available. Several simulators have now been validated using scientific methodology. Fidelity of these simulators largely varies from high to low and evidence is lacking as to what the level of fidelity plays in the overall usefulness of a simulator. The range of surgical techniques able to be performed remains limited and introducing anatomical variables remains a challenge within this field.


Whilst computerised simulation for training endoscopic sinus surgery has made major advances in the last decade, it still has significant limitations. Improvements in haptic removal of sinus tissue, introduction of variable anatomy and bleeding simulation may allow greater acceptance of this technology in the future.


Computer simulation Endoscopic sinus surgery Nasendoscopy Haptics Validation Virtual reality 


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Simon Carney
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nuwan Dharmawardana
    • 1
    • 2
  • Karen Reynolds
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Otolaryngology–Head & Neck SurgeryFlinders UniversityAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.Medical Device Research InstituteFlinders UniversityAdelaideAustralia

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