Current Otorhinolaryngology Reports

, Volume 4, Issue 3, pp 194–200 | Cite as

Intraoperative Fluorescence Angiography for Head and Neck Reconstruction

  • Russel Kahmke
  • Lindsay Moore
  • Eben L. Rosenthal
  • Benjamin GreeneEmail author
Head and Neck Reconstruction (E. Rosenthal, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Head and Neck Reconstruction


Purpose of Review

Reconstruction of head and neck defects that cannot be closed primarily often requires the use of complex locoregional, pedicled, or microvascular flaps. Success of the reconstruction relies on the vascular supply of these flaps to prevent major and sometimes life-threatening wound complications. Intraoperative fluorescence angiography is an emerging aspect of the field that can be used as an adjunct to other methods to identify vascular compromise before, during, and after reconstruction.

Recent Findings

Laser-assisted near-infrared angiography with intravenous indocyanine green (ICG) dye has been used to perform optical angiography in plastic surgery to help determine the recipient tissue perfusion at the defect site as well as the perfusion of the tissue used for reconstruction. This method allows for quantification of perfusion in skin and soft tissue reconstruction.


Laser-assisted near-infrared angiography with intravenous ICG dye is fast, reliable, safe and can have many uses in head and neck reconstruction including the ability to quantitatively assess perfusion in perforators and angiosomes in flap design, prior to completion of harvest, during, and after the microvascular anastomosis, and in the distal edges of rotational and pedicled flaps. It can also be used to objectively view the native tissue prior to reconstruction, especially in patients with a history of radiation or chemotherapy.


Indocyanine green Head and neck Reconstruction Vascular angiography ICG Free flap Perfusion 


Compliance with Ethical Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Dr. Russel Kahmke, Dr. Lindsay Moore, and Dr. Benjamin Greene declare that they have no conflicts of interest. Dr. Rosenthal reports grants from NIH, grants and other from LI-COR Biosciences, Inc., consulting for Aspyrian Therapeutics, Inc., and equipment loans and speaker’s honorarium from NOVADAQ, outside the submitted work.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Russel Kahmke
    • 1
  • Lindsay Moore
    • 1
  • Eben L. Rosenthal
    • 2
  • Benjamin Greene
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck SurgeryUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  2. 2.Department of OtolaryngologyStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

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