Molecular Biomarkers for Glaucoma
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Purpose of Review
This article summarizes the current studies on molecular biomarkers with potential implications in diagnosis, prognosis, and response to treatment in patients with glaucoma.
Important advances have occurred in the understanding of the pathogenesis of glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Protein biomarkers associated with inflammatory, neurodegenerative, and other molecular pathways have been described in glaucoma patients in tear film, aqueous fluid, vitreous fluid, and serum, however, we are still far from having a clear picture of the whole molecular network that relates to the disease and its implications in clinical use.
Although more studies are needed, current and emerging molecular biomarkers candidates in glaucoma may eventually transition into clinical use and contribute to outline the concept of precision medicine and precision health in glaucoma.
KeywordsGlaucoma Biomarkers Optic nerve degeneration
We gratefully acknowledge the National Eye Institute (P30-EY026877), the Glaucoma Research Foundation, and Research to Prevent Blindness, Inc.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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