Endophthalmitis Following Intravitreal Injections Performed in the Office Versus Operating Room Setting

  • Joshua H. Uhr
  • Jason HsuEmail author
Ocular Microbiology and Immunology (B Jeng and L Schocket, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Ocular Microbiology and Immunology


Purpose of Review

To review the safety of performing intravitreal injections in the office compared with the operating room setting.

Recent Findings

Few studies directly compare outcomes, including endophthalmitis rate, following intravitreal injections performed in the office versus operating room setting. Instead, the literature on post-injection endophthalmitis consists mostly of retrospective series separately assessing outcomes of injections performed in either the office or in the operating room. These studies consistently show that the rates of endophthalmitis are low in each setting. Of the studies reviewed, 1,220,479 unique intravitreal injections were performed in the office and 285,653 were performed in the operating room. The rate of endophthalmitis was low and similar for each (0.027%).


The current data suggests that it is safe to perform intravitreal injections in either the office or the operating room.


Endophthalmitis Intravitreal injection Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor Injection setting Injection safety Injection complications 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

All reported studies/experiments with human or animal subjects performed by the authors have been previously published and complied with all applicable ethical standards (including the Helsinki Declaration and its amendments, institutional/national research committee standards, and international/national/institutional guidelines).

Conflict of Interest

Jason Hsu reports grants from Roche/Genentech, grants from Ophthotech and grants from Santen, outside the submitted work. Joshua H. Uhr declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Retina ServiceWills Eye HospitalPhiladelphiaUSA

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