Trabecular Meshwork Regeneration—a Potential Treatment for Glaucoma

  • Alexander Castro
  • Yiqin DuEmail author
Regenerative Medicine in Ophthalmology (D. Myung, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Regenerative Medicine in Ophthalmology


Purpose of review

In this review, we overview the pathophysiology of primary open-angle glaucoma as it relates to the trabecular meshwork (TM), exploring modes of TM dysfunction and regeneration via stem cell therapies.

Recent Findings

Stem cells from a variety of sources, including trabecular meshwork, mesenchymal, adipose, and induced pluripotent stem cells, have shown the potential to differentiate into TM cells in vitro or in vivo and to regenerate the TM in vivo, lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) and reducing glaucomatous retinal ganglion cell damage.


Stem cell therapies for TM regeneration provide a robust and promising suite of treatments for eventual lowering of IOP and prevention of glaucomatous vision loss in humans in the future. Further investigation into stem cell homing mechanisms and the safety of introducing these cells into human anterior chamber, for instance, are required before clinical applications in treating glaucoma patients.


Trabecular meshwork Glaucoma Regeneration Stem cells Intraocular pressure 


Funding information

This work was supported by NIH grants EY025643 (Y.D.) and P30-EY008098; Eye and Ear Foundation (Pittsburgh, PA); Research to Prevent Blindness; University of Pittsburgh Summer Premedical Academic Enrichment Program (SPAEP) (A.C.).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Alexander Castro declares that he has no conflicts of interest. University of Pittsburgh owns a patent “trabecular meshwork stem cells” with Yiqin Du as one of the inventors.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.University of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA
  3. 3.McGowan Institute for Regenerative MedicineUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  4. 4.Department of Developmental BiologyUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

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