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Purpose of Review
This study aims for an update and overview of the literature on current telemedicine applications in retina.
The application of telemedicine to the field of Ophthalmology and Retina has been growing with advancing technologies in ophthalmic imaging. Retinal telemedicine has been most commonly applied to diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity in adult and pediatric patients, respectively. Telemedicine has the potential to alleviate the growing demand for clinical evaluation of retinal diseases. Subsequently, automated image analysis and deep learning systems may facilitate efficient processing of large, increasing numbers of images generated in telemedicine systems. Telemedicine may additionally improve access to education and standardized training through tele-education systems.
Telemedicine has the potential to be utilized as a useful adjunct but not a complete replacement for physical clinical examinations. Retinal telemedicine programs should be carefully and appropriately integrated into current clinical systems.
KeywordsRetina Diabetic retinopathy Retinopathy of prematurity Telemedicine Image analysis Deep learning
Unrestricted departmental grant from Research to Prevent Blindness (RVPC, RC, KEJ, MRC, PC, SO, DD); National Institutes of Health R01 EY019474, Bethesda, Maryland (RVPC, MFC, JPC, SO); National Science Foundation SCH-1622679, Arlington, Virginia (RVPC, MFC, JPC, SO); National Institutes of Health P30 EY001792 Core Grant for Vision Research (RVPC, RC, KEJ, DD).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Ru-ik Chee, Dana Darwish, Álvaro Fernández-Vega, Samir Patel, Karyn Jonas, Susan Ostmo, Peter Campbell, and R.V. Paul Chan declare no conflict of interest.
Michael Chiang reports grants from National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, unrestricted department funding from Research to Prevent Blindness, personal fees as a consultant for Novartis (Steering Committee member, RAINBOW study), and is an unpaid member of the scientific advisory board for Clarity Medical Systems.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance
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