Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis: A Review of History, Pathophysiology, and Current Guidelines
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Purpose of Review
Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a rare systemic disease with a high mortality. The purpose of this review is to provide clinicians with guidance regarding safe administration of GBCAs to patients with renal disease.
Development of NSF has been linked to the administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) in patients with renal disease. Due to the wide variety of available GBCAs and recommendations regarding safe administration of these agents, it can be difficult for clinicians to choose the best GBCA for this patient population.
Although the current ACR guidelines have virtually eliminated the risk of NSF, future research may lead to the development of alternative contrast agents for patients at risk of NSF who require contrast-enhanced MRIs.
KeywordsGadolinium Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis MRI contrast guidelines Gadolinium safety End-stage renal disease
The authors would like to thank Dr. Harlan Harvey for reviewing their manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Guidelines
Conflict of interest
Julian M. Hazelton and Michael K. Chiu each declare no potential conflicts of interest. Hani H. Abujudeh is a section editor for Current Radiology Reports.
Human and Animal Rights
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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