MR Imaging of Chondrogenic Tumors: Update on Select Imaging Challenges
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Purpose of Review
This review article discusses the updated World Health Classification of chondrogenic skeletal tumors and the role of conventional and advanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the evaluation of chondrogenic skeletal lesions with emphasis on select diagnostic dilemmas.
The majority of benign chondrogenic skeletal lesions have typical radiographic and MR features. Conventional MR imaging sequences can be helpful in the distinction of tumor-like lesions from chondrogenic tumors, and the evaluation of anatomic extent, particularly with regard to the detection of soft tissue masses associated with a chondrosarcoma (CS). Benign, atypical, and malignant chondrogenic lesions can have overlapping features on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping although dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) sequences can be helpful in the characterization of chondrogenic tumors as benign or malignant. Patients with multiple chondrogenic tumor conditions or syndromes are predisposed to developing CS and extra-skeletal malignancies, and as such, a small subset may benefit from imaging surveillance.
The majority of chondrogenic skeletal lesions can be characterized confidently on imaging. In the small subset of intermediate and malignant chondrogenic lesions with overlapping imaging and pathological features, a multidisciplinary approach should be used.
KeywordsMR imaging Osteochondroma Enchondroma Atypical cartilaginous tumor Chondroblastoma Chondrosarcoma
Compliance with Ethical Guidelines
Conflict of interest
Shivani Ahlawat declares no potential conflicts of interest. Laura M. Fayad reports Gant support: GERRAF 2008-10, Siemens 2011-12.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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