Current Pediatrics Reports

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 220–228 | Cite as

Bladder-Bowel Dysfunction in Children: Consequences, Risk Factors and Recommendations for Primary Care Interventions

  • Amanda K. Berry
Urology (GE Tasian, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Urology



The goals of this paper are to review potential risk factors and emerging insights into nature of bladder-bowel dysfunction (BBD) and highlight a patient-centered approach to management, which can begin in the primary care setting.

Recent Findings

(1) BBD is documented in about half of patients with vesicoureteral reflux and increases potential for renal scarring. (2) Neurodevelopmental and environmental factors are associated with BBD and greater understanding of a neurocentric basis for BBD is emerging. (3) A patient-centered approach to care is required. The way in which children and adolescents understand their bladder, bowel, or continence problem can influence coping strategies and adherence to treatment.


Early identification and treatment of BBD is important to prevent significant medical and social burden. The primary care provider with foundational knowledge of the causes and risk factors for BBD and an established relationship with a patient and family is well suited to identify BBD and begin management.


Bladder bowel dysfunction Constipation Children Urinary tract infection Incontinence Treatment 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The author declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of UrologyChildren’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA

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