A New Subtraction-Type Miniature Cone Penetrometer

  • Ashish JunejaEmail author
  • Rajendra Singh Bisht
Original Paper


This paper presents the development and use of a new 10-mm-diameter miniature cone penetrometer which can measure separately the tip and sleeve resistance in laboratory-prepared soil beds. This cone penetrometer is relatively easy to make and costs significantly less than few other commercial penetrometers, which otherwise are usually large and yield inaccurate results due to boundary effects. Application of this cone penetrometer was examined by performing tests on clay and sand beds. A good agreement was obtained between the theoretical and back-calculated cone factor in clay. The tip resistance was equally sensitive to the relative density in the case of sand and could be well correlated with the mobilised friction angle. The advancing cone was enabled to detect from a distance, the upcoming interface between layers of two different relative densities.


Cone tip resistance Laboratory testing Layered soil Miniature cone penetrometer Sleeve friction Transition zone 

List of Symbols


Cone diameter


Relative density of sand


Sleeve friction


Shear modulus


Gauge factor


Dimensionless factor


Cone factor


Dimensionless bearing capacity factor


Plasticity index


Cone tip resistance


Resistance of the strain gauge


Undrained shear strength


Input voltage


Output voltage


Penetration depth


Vertical effective stress


Change in resistance


Strain in strain gauges


Effective angle of internal friction


Unit weight of soil



The second author gratefully acknowledges Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Government of India, and Industrial Research and Consultancy Centre (IRCC), Indian Institute Technology Bombay, for his doctoral fellowship. The clay samples were prepared by Anurag S. Chafale.


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Copyright information

© Indian Geotechnical Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology BombayMumbaiIndia

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