Indian Geotechnical Journal

, Volume 48, Issue 4, pp 753–767 | Cite as

Local and Global Granular Mechanical Characteristics of Grain–Structure Interactions

  • Z. K. Jahanger
  • J. Sujatha
  • S. J. Antony
Original Paper


The focus of this work is on systematically understanding the effects of packing density of the sand grains on both the internal and bulk mechanical properties for strip footing interacting with granular soil. The studies are based on particle image velocimetry (PIV) method, coupled with a high resolution imaging camera. This provides valuable new insights on the evolution of slip planes at grain-scale under different fractions of the ultimate load. Furthermore, the PIV based results are compared with finite element method simulations in which the experimentally characterised parameters and constitutive behaviour are fed as an input, and a good level of agreements are obtained. The reported results would serve to the practicing engineers, researchers and graduate students in unravelling the mechanics of granular soil at both local and global levels when they interact with structures. The outcomes would be beneficial not only to the geotechnical engineering community, but also to related disciplines dealing with granular materials such as materials processing, minerals and space exploration.


Granular mechanics PIV FEM Bearing capacity Grain–structure interaction 

Supplementary material

40098_2018_295_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (13.7 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 14013 kb)


  1. 1.
    Jaeger HM, Nagel SR, Behringer RP (1996) Granular solids, liquids, and gases. Rev Mod Phys 68(4):1259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Duran J (2000) Sands, powders and grains. Springer, New YorkzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Desrues J, Viggiani G (2004) Strain localization in sand: an overview of the experimental results obtained in Grenoble using stereo photogrammetry. Int J Num Analy Meth Geomech 28(4):279–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Antony SJ (2007) Link between single-particle properties and macroscopic properties in particulate assemblies: role of structures within structures. Philos Trans R Soc A: Math Phy Eng Sci 365(1861):2879–2891MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Radjai F, Wolf DE, Jean M, Moreau J-J (1998) Bimodal character of stress transmission in granular packings. Phys Rev letters 80(1):61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thornton C, Antony SJ (1998) Quasi-static deformation of particulate media. Philos Trans R Soc A Math Phys Eng Sci 356:2763–2782zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kruyt N, Antony SJ (2007) Force, relative-displacement, and work networks in granular materials subjected to quasistatic deformation. Phys Rev E 75(5):051308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bowles JE (1997) Foundation analysis and design, 5th edn. McGraw-Hill, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liu C, Evett JB (2004) Soils and foundations, 6th edn. Pearson Prentice Hall, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fang H-Y (1991) Foundation engineering handbook, 2nd edn. Chapman and Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Das BM (2009) Shallow foundations: bearing capacity and settlement, 2nd edn. CRC Press, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Terzaghi K, Peck RB (1967) Soil mechanics in engineering practice. Wiley, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hansbo S (1994) Foundation engineering. Elsevier, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schmertmann JH, Brown PR, Hartman JP (1978) Improved strain influence factor diagrams. J Geotech Eng Div, Proc ASCE 104(8):1131–1135Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Powrie W (2014) Soil mechanics: concepts and applications, 3rd edn. CRC Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mayne PW, Poulos HG (1999) Approximate displacement influence factors for elastic shallow foundations. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 125(6):453–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liu J, Iskander M (2004) Adaptive cross correlation for imaging displacements in soils. J Comput Civ Eng 18(1):46–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Studio Dynamic (2013) Dynamic studio user’s guide. Dantec Dynamics, SkovlundeGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Albaraki S, Antony SJ (2014) How does internal angle of hoppers affect granular flow? Experimental studies using digital particle image velocimetry. Powder Technol 268:253–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Adrian RJ (1991) Particle-imaging techniques for experimental fluid mechanics. Ann Rev Fluid Mech 23(1):261–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hamm E, Tapia F, Melo F (2011) Dynamics of shear bands in a dense granular material forced by a slowly moving rigid body. Phys Rev E 84(4):041304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Murthy TG, Gnanamanickam E, Chandrasekar S (2012) Deformation field in indentation of a granular ensemble. Phys Rev E 85(6):061306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cheng Y, White DJ, Bowman ET, Bolton MD, Soga K (2001) The observation of soil microstructure under load. In: Powders and Grains, Balkema, pp 69–72Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    White D, Take W, Bolton M (2003) Soil deformation measurement using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and photogrammetry. Geotechnique 53(7):619–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    O’Loughlin C, Lehane B (2010) Nonlinear cone penetration test-based method for predicting footing settlements on sand. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 136(3):409–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jahanger ZK, Antony SJ, Richter J (2016) Displacement patterns beneath a rigid beam indenting on layered soil. In: Proceedings of the 8th Americas regional conference of the international society for terrain-vehicle system, Michigan, paper no. 67Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    ASTM Standard (1989) Soil and Rock, Building, Stores, Geotextiles, 04.08, West Conshohocken, PAGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Head K (2006) Manual of soil laboratory test: soil classification and compaction tests, vol 1, 3rd edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dijkstra J, White DJ, Gaudin C (2013) Comparison of failure modes below footings on carbonate and silica sands. Int J Phys Model Geotech 13(1):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    White D, Bolton M (2004) Displacement and strain paths during plane-strain model pile installation in sand. Géotechnique 54(6):375–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cerato AB, Lutenegger AJ (2007) Scale effects of shallow foundation bearing capacity on granular material. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 133(10):1192–1202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Altaee A, Fellenius BH (1994) Physical modeling in sand. Can Geotech J 31(3):420–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lau CK (1988) Scale effects in tests on footings. PhD thesis, University of CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Raymond GP, Komos FE (1978) Repeated load testing of a model plane strain footing. Can Geotech J 15(2):190–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Das BM (2011) Principles of foundation engineering, 7th edn. Global Engineering, ConnecticutGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kumar J, Bhoi MK (2009) Interference of two closely spaced strip footings on sand using model tests. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 135(4):595–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    ANSYS 17.2 (2016) ANSYS theory manual. ANSYS Inc, CanonsburgGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kumar J, Kouzer K (2007) Effect of footing roughness on bearing capacity factor Nγ. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 133(5):502–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mosadegh A, Nikraz H (2015) Bearing capacity evaluation of footing on a layered-soil using ABAQUS. J Earth Sci Clim Change 6(3):264Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gordan B, Adnan A, Aida MA (2014) Soil saturated simulation in embankment during strong earthquake by effect of elasticity modulus. Model Simul Eng 2014:20Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lee H-H (2015) Finite element simulations with ANSYS workbench 16. SDC Publications, USAGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Akbas SO, Kulhawy FH (2009) Axial compression of footings in cohesionless soils I: load–settlement behavior. J Geotech Geoen Eng 135(11):1562–1574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Vesic AS (1973) Analysis of ultimate loads of shallow foundations. J Soil Mech Found Div ASCE 99(SM1):45–73Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    De Beer EE (1965) Bearing capacity and settlement of shallow foundations on sand. In: Proceedings of the symposium on bearing capacity and settlements of foundations, Duke University, Durham, NC. pp 15–33Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jewell RA (1989) Direct shear tests on sand. Geotechnique 39(2):309–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lechinsky D, Marcozzi GF (1990) Bearing capacity of shallow foundations: rigid versus flexible models. J Geotech Eng 116(11):1750–1756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Selvadurai APS (1979) Elastic analysis of soil–foundation interaction. Developments in Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 17, Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Terzaghi K (1943) Theoretical soil mechanics. Wiley, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Prandtl L (1920) Über die härte plastischer körper [On the hardness of plastic bodies]. Math. Phys. Kl 12:74–85 (in German) Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bolton M (1986) The strength and dilatancy of sands. Geotechnique 36(1):65–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lutenegger AJ, DeGroot DJ (1995) Settlement of shallow foundations on granular soils. Report no. 6332, University of Massachusetts Transportation CentreGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Griffiths DV, Fenton GA, Manoharan N (2006) Undrained bearing capacity of two-strip footings on spatially random soil. Int J Geomech 6(6):421–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lee J, Eun J, Prezzi M, Salgado R (2008) Strain influence diagrams for settlement estimation of both isolated and multiple footings in sand. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 134(4):417–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Geotechnical Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Chemical and Process EngineeringUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK
  2. 2.Department of Water Resources Eng, College of EngineeringUniversity of BaghdadBaghdadIraq
  3. 3.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity College of EngineeringNagercoilIndia

Personalised recommendations