Indian Geotechnical Journal

, Volume 49, Issue 1, pp 58–69 | Cite as

Prediction of Liquefaction Susceptibility of Clean Sandy Soils Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

  • Ayad Salih Sabbar
  • Amin ChegenizadehEmail author
  • Hamid Nikraz
Original Paper


The liquefaction susceptibility of sandy soil is generally characterised by some parameters in the static liquefaction potential evaluation. These parameters are usually measured by static laboratory tests on distributed and undistributed samples under different test conditions. This study performs the ANN and genetic programming to estimate the static liquefaction susceptibility of clean sand soils based on experimental results to predict and develop an equation for the ratio of qmin/qpeak which is considered as the static liquefaction criterion. The qmin/qpeak model is a function of the minimum and maximum void ratios, relative density, initial effective confining pressure, and some other parameters. The findings of this study demonstrated that a good agreement between ANN and symbolic regression in predicting the ratio of qmin/qpeak based on laboratory tests. The possible application of the proposed qmin/qpeak equation is restricted by some limitations. The outcomes of the present work can be used in the preliminary liquefaction assessment of clean sandy soils prior to the complementary experimental studies.


Static liquefaction ANN Symbolic regression Genetic programming qmin/qpeak 



Artificial intelligent


Artificial neural network


Skempton’s coefficient


Uniformity coefficient


Cone Penetration Test


Relative density


Mean grains size


Maximum void ratio


Minimum void ratio


Void ratio


Genetic programming


Multi-Gene Genetic Programming


Number of input variables


Minimum deviatoric stress


Initial peak deviatoric stress


Root mean square error


Coefficient of determination


Standard Penetration Test


The ratio of initial shear stresses to the initial effective confining pressure


Initial effective confining pressure


Axial stress

σ3 c

Confining pressure



The first author sincerely acknowledges the funding received from the Higher Committee for Education Development in the Republic of Iraq in the form of a scholarship for his PhD study.


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Copyright information

© Indian Geotechnical Society 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ayad Salih Sabbar
    • 1
  • Amin Chegenizadeh
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hamid Nikraz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia

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