Advertisement

Indian Geotechnical Journal

, Volume 46, Issue 3, pp 309–318 | Cite as

Incorporating Temperature Effects in Soil-Water Characteristic Curves

  • Pedram Roshani
  • Julio Ángel Infante Sedano
Original Paper

Abstract

The study of water movement in unsaturated soils under non isothermal conditions requires understanding the soil water characteristic curves (SWCC) as a function of temperature. Physical processes such as water permeability, and shear strength of unsaturated soils are a function of the SWCC. These curves are generally assumed to be a unique relationship for a soil for all practical purposes. However, factors such as temperature and volume change can affect this uniqueness. The aim of this paper is to present a rational approach to describe the effect of temperature on the SWCC under isothermal conditions. A simple equation based on the relationship between temperature and the capillary rise is applied to find the air entry value at different temperatures when its value is known at a reference temperature. The same equation can be applied to the residual water content term of the SWCC. An experimental procedure for two different coarse-grained soils in the low suction range (i.e., 0–30 kPa) at three different temperatures (4, 20, and \(49\,^{\circ }\hbox {C}\)) were conducted to validate the proposed approach. The comparison between experimental results, published SWCC data from literature and the proposed equation indicate that the proposed method can be used to successfully predict the measured SWCC with respect to temperature.

Keywords

SWCC Water permeability Shear strength Temperature Capillary model 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The financial support for this investigation was provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

References

  1. 1.
    Bach LB (1992) Soil water movement in response to temperature gradients: experimental measurements and model evaluation. Soil Sci Soc Am J 56(1):37–46MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bachmann J, van der Ploeg RR (2002) A review on recent developments in soil water retention theory: interfacial tension and temperature effects. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 165(4):468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brooks R, Corey A (1964) Hydraulic properties of porous media, Hydrology Paper No. 3. Colorado State University, Fort CollinsGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chahal RS (1964) Effect of temperature and trapped air on the energy status of water in porous media. Soil Sci 98(2):107–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Constantz J (1991) Comparison of isothermal and isobaric water retention paths in nonswelling porous materials. Water Resour Res 27(12):3165–3170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Croney D, Coleman JD (1961) Pore pressure and suction in soils. In: Proceedings of the conference on pore pressure and suction in soils, Butterworths, London, pp 31–37Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fredlund DG, Rahardjo H, Fredlund MD (2012) Unsaturated soil mechanics in engineering practice, technology and engineering. Published in Canada Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fredlund DG, Xing A (1994) Equations for the soil-water characteristic curve. Can Geotech J 31(4):521–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fredlund MD, Wilson GW, Fredlund DG (2002) Use of the grain-size distribution for estimation of the soil-water characteristic curve. Can Geotech J 39(5):1103–1117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gerscovich DMS, Sayão ASFJ (2002) Evaluation of the soil-water characteristic curve equations for soils from Brazil. In: Proceedings of third international conference on unsaturated soils, pp 295–300Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Grant SA, Bachmann J (2002) Effect of temperature on capillary pressure. In: Water, mass and energy transfer in the biosphere. The Philip Volume, Environmental Mechanics, pp 199–212Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Grant SA, Salehzadeh A (1996) Calculation of temperature effects on wetting coefficients of porous solids and their capillary pressure functions. Water Resour Res 32(2):261–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Grifoll J, Gastó JM, Cohen Y (2005) Non-isothermal soil water transport and evaporation. Adv Water Resour 28(11):1254–1266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Haridasan M, Jensen RD (1972) Effect of temperature on pressure head-water content relationship and conductivity of two soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 36(5):703–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hilf JW (1956) An investigation of pore-water pressure in compacted cohesive soils, PhD Thesis. Technical Memorandum No. 654. United State Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation, Design and Construction Division, Denver, Colorado, USAGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ho DYF, Fredlund DG, Rahardjo H (1992) Volume change indices during loading and unloading of an unsaturated soil. Can Geotech J 29(2):195–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hopmans JW, Dane JH (1986a) Temperature dependence of soil hydraulic properties. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50(1):4–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hopmans JW, Dane JH (1986b) Temperature dependence of soil water retention curves. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50(3):562–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jacinto AC, Villar MV, Gómez-Espina R, Ledesma A (2009) Adaptation of the van Genuchten expression to the effects of temperature and density for compacted bentonites. Appl Clay Sci 42(3):575–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Keshky ME (2011) Temperature effect on the soil water retention characteristic. Master of Science Thesis, Presented in Partial Fulfillment, Arizona State University, Arizona, USAGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    King FH (1892) Observations and experiments on the fluctuations in the level and rate of movement of ground water on the Wisconsin Agricultural experiment station farm, and at Whitewater, Wisconsin. U.S. Weather Bur Bull 5:67–69Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kutula T, Ersahin S (2008) Calibration of van Genuchten unsaturated hydraulic conductivity parameters by regression technique. In: International meeting on soil fertility land management and agroclimatology, Turkey, pp 175–181Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Leong EC, Rahardjo H (1997) Review of soil-water characteristic curve equations. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. 123(12):1106–1117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liu HH, Bodvarsson GS, Dane JH (2006) Temperature dependence of large-scale water-retention curves: a case study. Hydrol J 14(8):1403–1408Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Malaya C, Sreedeep S (2011) Critical review on the parameters influencing soil-water characteristic curve. J Irrig Drain Eng 138(1):55–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nimmo JR, Miller EE (1986) The temperature dependence of isothermal moisture vs. potential characteristics of soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50(5):1105–1113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Philip JR, de Vries DA (1957) Moisture movement in porous materials under temperature gradients. Trans Am Geophys Union 38:222–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Romero E, Gens A, Lloret A (2001) Temperature effects on the hydraulic behaviour of an unsaturated clay. Geotech Geol Eng 19(3–4):311–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Salager S, Jamin F, El Youssoufi MS, Saix C (2006) Influence de la température sur la courbe de rétention d’eau de milieux poreux. Comptes Rendus Mécanique 334(6):393–398CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    She HY, Sleep BE (1998) The effect of temperature on capillary pressure–saturation relationships for air–water and perchloroethylene–water systems. Water Resour Res 34(10):2587–2597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sillers WS, Fredlund DG, Zakerzadeh N (2001) Mathematical attributes of some soil–water characteristic curve models. In: Toll DG (eds) Unsaturated soil concepts and their application in geotechnical practice. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, pp 243–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Stormont JC, Anderson CE (1999) Capillary barrier effect from underlying coarser soil layer. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 125(8):641–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Torres Hernandez G (2011) Estimating the soil-water characteristic curve using grain size analysis and plasticity index. Master of Science Thesis, Arizona State University, ArizonaGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    van Genuchten MT (1980) A closed-form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 44(5):892–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vanapalli SK, Çatana MC (2005) Estimation of the soil-water characteristic curve of coarse-grained soils using one point measurement and simple properties. In: Proceedings of an international symposium on advanced experimental unsaturated soil mechanics, Roma, Italy, pp 401–410Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Vanapalli SK, Fredlund DG, Pufahl DE (1999) The influence of soil structure and stress history on the soil-water characteristics of a compacted till. Geotechnique 49(2):143–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Villar MV, Gómez-Espina R (2007) Retention curves of two bentonites at high temperature. In: Schanz T (ed) Experimental unsaturated soil mechanics. Springer Proceedings in Physics, vol 112. Springer, Berlin, pp 267–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wu W, Li X, Charlier R, Collin F (2004) A thermo-hydro-mechanical constitutive model and its numerical modelling for unsaturated soils. Comput Geotech 31(2):155–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zhang F, Zhang R, Kang S (2003) Estimating temperature effects on water flow in variably saturated soils using activation energy. Soil Sci Soc Am J 67(5):1327–1333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zhou J, Yu JL (2005) Influences affecting the soil-water characteristic curve. J Zhejiang Univ Sci 6(8):797CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Geotechnical Society 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Morton Jagodich IncorporatedCalgaryCanada
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of OttawaOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations