Modelling and Bi-objective Optimization of Soil Cutting and Pushing Process for Bulldozer and its Blade

  • Nada Barakat
  • Deepak SharmaEmail author
Original Contribution


Bulldozer is an earth moving machine, which is mainly used for cutting and pushing soil. The process of soil cutting and pushing involves various decisions making to make it optimum. The decisions are generally made based on the experience of practitioners that may not be optimum for different working conditions. In this paper, a bi-objective optimization problem is modelled so that the optimum values of decision variables can be determined. The objective functions are proposed to make the process economic and productive by minimizing the cutting force on a bulldozer blade and maximizing the blade capacity. A constraint is also developed on the power requirement from a bulldozer to overcome resistance. The problem is solved using ε-constraint method and multi-objective genetic algorithm. The approximate Pareto-optimal solutions and their perturbation analysis are presented. Various relationships are evolved from the post-optimal analysis that can be used for making guidelines for decision making for the process. The originality of this paper lies in developing the bi-objective formulation and in presenting various relationships by the post-optimal analysis, which has sparingly done in the domain literature.


Modelling and optimization Bulldozer Soil–blade interaction Genetic algorithm Post-optimal analysis 



Blade width, m


Blade height, m


Blade curvature radius, m


Blade curvature angle, radians


Soil-metal angle friction, radians


Density of cut soil, kg/m3


Uncut soil density, kg/m3


Cohesion of cut soil, N/m2


Cohesion of uncut soil, N/m2


Soil adhesion factor, N/m2


Angle of internal friction of soil, radians


Angle of accumulation of cut soil, radians


Angle that the rapture plane makes with horizontal, radians


Cutting angle of blade, radians


Bulldozer velocity, m/s


Cutting depth, m


Weight of soil pile moving on the ground (fgde), N


Weight of cut soil (abdgf) sliding up on the surface of the blade, N


Weight of soil wedge (bcdnmk), N


Frictional force between soil pile (fgde) and ground, N


Cohesion force between soil pile (fgde) and ground, N


Frictional force between blade and cut soil (abdgf), N


Adhesion force between the soil and cutting edge of the blade, N


Adhesion force between blade and cut soil (abdgf), N


Frictional force between soil pile (fgdc) and cut soil, N


Cohesion force between soil pile(fgdc) and cut soil (abdgf), N


Force acting normal to the face (bcd) and (nmk) of soil wedge, N


Frictional force on the sides (bcd) and (nmk) of soil wedge, N


Cohesion force on the sides (bcd) and (nmk) of soil wedge, N


Cohesion force on the rapture plane, N


Frictional force on the rapture plane, N


Normal force on the rapture plane, N


Force acting normal to the face (bdkn) of soil wedge, N


The horizontal component of resultant cutting force N


The vertical component of resultant cutting force N


The resultant cutting force, N

Nγ, Nc, Nq

Reece dimensionless factors


Surcharge pressure, N/m2


The resistance force experienced at the blade, N


The blade capacity, m3


The soil pile volume (fde), m3


The soil pile volume (afg), m3


The soil pile volume (abdg), m3


The soil pile volume in the curvature area (ab), m3


The frictional factor between the dozer crawlers and the soil


The weight of dozer equipment, kN


The flywheel power of dozer equipment, kN m/s


Rimpull supplied by bulldozer engine to overcome resistance forces, kN


Remaining power of bulldozer engine, kN m/s



The authors are thankful to Indian Council for Cultural Relations for the support for studies and research.


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Copyright information

© The Institution of Engineers (India) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Indian Institutes of Technology GuwahatiGuwahatiIndia

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